Identification of a Danger-Associated Peptide From Apolipoprotein B100 (ApoBDS-1) That Triggers Innate Proatherogenic Responses
Background—Subendothelial deposited low-density lipoprotein particles are a known inflammatory factor in atherosclerosis. However, the causal components derived from low-density lipoprotein are still poorly defined. Apolipoprotein B100 (ApoB100) is the unexchangeable protein component of low-density lipoprotein, and the progression of atherosclerosis is associated with immune responses to ApoB100-derived peptides. In this study, we analyzed the proinflammatory activity of ApoB100 peptides in atherosclerosis.
Methods and Results—By screening a peptide library of ApoB100, we identified a distinct native peptide referred to as ApoB100 danger-associated signal 1 (ApoBDS-1), which shows sequence-specific bioactivity in stimulation of interleukin-8, CCL2, and interleukin-6. ApoBDS-1 activates mitogen-activated protein kinase and calcium signaling, thereby effecting the expression of interleukin-8 in innate immune cells. Ex vivo stimulation of carotid plaques with ApoBDS-1 enhances interleukin-8 and prostaglandin E2 release. Furthermore, we demonstrated that ApoBDS-1–positive peptide fragments are present in atherosclerotic lesions using immunoassays and that low-molecular-weight fractions isolated from plaque show ApoBDS-1 activity inducing interleukin-8 production.
Conclusions—Our data show that ApoBDS-1 is a previously unrecognized peptide with robust proinflammatory activity, contributing to the disease-promoting effects of low-density lipoprotein in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.
- Received July 11, 2011.
- Accepted September 22, 2011.
- © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.