Frailty Is Independently Associated With Short-Term Outcomes for Elderly Patients With Non–ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction
Background—For the large and growing population of elderly patients with cardiovascular disease, it is important to identify clinically relevant measures of biological age and their contribution to risk. Frailty is an emerging concept in medicine denoting increased vulnerability and decreased physiological reserves. We analyzed the manner in which the variable frailty predicts short-term outcomes for elderly non–ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients.
Methods and Results—Patients aged ≥75 years, with diagnosed non–ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction were included at 3 centers, and clinical data including judgment of frailty were collected prospectively. Frailty was defined according to the Canadian Study of Health and Aging Clinical Frailty Scale. The impact of the comorbid conditions on risk was quantified by the coronary artery disease–specific index. Of 307 patients, 149 (48.5%) were considered frail. By multiple logistic regression, frailty was found to be strongly and independently associated with risk for the primary composite outcome (death from any cause, myocardial reinfarction, revascularization due to ischemia, hospitalization for any cause, major bleeding, stroke/transient ischemic attack, and need for dialysis up to 1 month after inclusion) (odds ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.3–3.7), in-hospital mortality (odds ratio, 4.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.3–16.8), and 1-month mortality (odds ratio, 4.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.7–13.0).
Conclusions—Frailty is strongly and independently associated with in-hospital mortality, 1-month mortality, prolonged hospital care, and the primary composite outcome. The combined use of frailty and comorbidity may constitute an ultimate risk prediction concept in regard to cardiovascular patients with complex needs.
- Received February 15, 2011.
- Accepted September 16, 2011.
- © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.