Surgery in Adults With Congenital Heart Disease
Background—A significant proportion of patients with congenital heart disease require surgery in adulthood. We aimed to give an overview of the prevalence, distribution, and outcome of cardiovascular surgery for congenital heart disease. We specifically questioned whether the effects of surgical treatment on subsequent long-term survival depend on sex.
Methods and Results—From the Dutch Congenital Corvitia (CONCOR) registry for adults with congenital heart disease, we identified 10 300 patients; their median age was 33.1 years. Logistic and Cox regression models were used to assess the association of surgery in adulthood with sex and with long-term survival. In total, 2015 patients (20%) underwent surgery for congenital heart disease in adulthood during a median follow-up period of 15.1 years; in 812 patients (40%), it was a reoperation. Overall, both first operations and reoperations in adulthood were performed significantly more often in men compared with women (adjusted odds ratio=1.4 [95% confidence interval, 1.2–1.6] and 1.2 [95% confidence interval, 1.0–1.4], respectively). Patients with their third and fourth or more surgery in adulthood had a 2- and 3-times-higher risk of death compared with patients never operated on (adjusted hazard ratio=1.9 [95% confidence interval, 1.0–3.6] and 2.7 [95% confidence interval, 1.1–6.3], respectively). Men with a reoperation in adulthood had a 2-times-higher risk of death than women (adjusted hazard ratio=1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.0–3.5).
Conclusions—Of predominantly young adults with congenital heart disease, one fifth required cardiovascular surgery during a 15-year period; in 40%, the surgery was a reoperation. Men with congenital heart disease have a higher chance of undergoing surgery in adulthood and have a consistently worse long-term survival after reoperations in adulthood compared with women.
- Received March 1, 2011.
- Accepted September 14, 2011.
- © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.