Adolescents With d-Transposition of the Great Arteries Corrected With the Arterial Switch Procedure
Neuropsychological Assessment and Structural Brain Imaging
Background—We report neuropsychological and structural brain imaging assessments in children 16 years of age with d-transposition of the great arteries who underwent the arterial switch operation as infants. Children were randomly assigned to a vital organ support method, deep hypothermia with either total circulatory arrest or continuous low-flow cardiopulmonary bypass.
Methods and Results—Of 159 eligible adolescents, 139 (87%) participated. Academic achievement, memory, executive functions, visual-spatial skills, attention, and social cognition were assessed. Few significant treatment group differences were found. The occurrence of seizures in the postoperative period was the medical variable most consistently related to worse outcomes. The scores of both treatment groups tended to be lower than those of the test normative populations, with substantial proportions scoring ≥1 SDs below the expected mean. Although the test scores of most adolescents in this trial cohort are in the average range, a substantial proportion have received remedial academic or behavioral services (65%). Magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities were more frequent in the d-transposition of the great arteries group (33%) than in a referent group (4%).
Conclusions—Adolescents with d-transposition of the great arteries who have undergone the arterial switch operation are at increased neurodevelopmental risk. These data suggest that children with congenital heart disease may benefit from ongoing surveillance to identify emerging difficulties.
- Received February 24, 2011.
- Accepted July 6, 2011.
- © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.