Aortic Valve Replacement in the Elderly
Determinants of Late Outcome
Background—Few data exist on long-term outcomes of elderly patients after aortic valve replacement. We evaluated latest follow-up information for patients ≥70 years of age after aortic valve replacement.
Methods and Results—Late overall survival of 2890 consecutive patients ≥70 years of age who underwent aortic valve replacement between January 1993 and December 2007 was reviewed retrospectively, analyzed, and stratified by preoperative and intraoperative variables. Observed 5-, 10-, and 15-year late postoperative survival was lower than generally expected (68%, 34%, and 8% versus 70%, 42%, and 20%, respectively; P<0.001). Independent predictors of late death included older age, renal failure, diabetes mellitus, stroke, myocardial infarction, immunosuppression, prior coronary artery bypass grafting, implanted pacemaker, lower ejection fraction, hypertension, and New York Heart Association class III or IV. After stratification by age–comorbidity risk score, 10-year survival for the lowest-risk group (n=946 [33%]) was similar to expected survival (55% versus 55%; P=0.50), but for the highest-risk group (n=564 [20%]), survival was significantly lower than expected (9% versus 26%; P<0.001). For 229 pairs of propensity-matched patients with mechanical or biological prostheses, survival was not significantly different (67%, 40%, and 19% versus 71%, 45%, and 7% at 5, 10, and 15 years, respectively; P=0.81). Structural deterioration of bioprostheses occurred in 64 patients (2.4%).
Conclusions—Survival of elderly patients after aortic valve replacement is influenced by age and preoperative comorbidities; 33% at lowest risk had overall survival similar to that of an age- and sex-matched general population. There was no sufficient evidence that valve type affected survival. Structural deterioration of aortic bioprostheses was rare.
- Received September 1, 2010.
- Accepted June 14, 2011.
- © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.