Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy as a Therapeutic Option in Patients With Moderate-Severe Functional Mitral Regurgitation and High Operative Risk
Intoduction—Functional mitral regurgitation (MR) is a common finding in heart failure patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and has important prognostic implications. However, the increased operative risk of these patients may result in low referral or high denial rate for mitral valve surgery. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has been shown to have a favorable effect on MR. Aims of this study were to (1) evaluate CRT as a therapeutic option in heart failure patients with functional MR and high operative risk and (2) investigate the effect of MR improvement after CRT on prognosis.
Methods and Results—A total of 98 consecutive patients with moderate-severe functional MR and high operative risk underwent CRT according to current guidelines. Echocardiography was performed at baseline and 6-month follow-up; severity of MR was graded according to a multiparametric approach. Significant improvement of MR was defined as a reduction ≥1 grade. All-cause mortality was assessed during follow-up (median 32 [range 6.0 to 116] months). Thirteen patients (13%) died before 6-months follow-up. In the remaining 85 patients, significant reduction in MR was observed in all evaluated parameters. In particular, 42 patients (49%) improved ≥1 grade of MR and were considered MR improvers. Survival was superior in MR improvers compared to MR nonimprovers (log rank P<0.001). Mitral regurgitation improvement was an independent prognostic factor for survival (hazard ratio 0.35, confidence interval 0.13 to 0.94; P=0.043).
Conclusions—Cardiac resynchronization therapy is a potential therapeutic option in heart failure patients with moderate-severe functional MR and high risk for surgery. Improvement in MR results in superior survival after CRT.
- Received November 23, 2010.
- Accepted June 21, 2011.
- © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.