Mutation-Linked Defective Interdomain Interactions Within Ryanodine Receptor Cause Aberrant Ca2+ Release Leading to Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia
Background—The molecular mechanism by which catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia is induced by single amino acid mutations within the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) remains elusive. In the present study, we investigated mutation-induced conformational defects of RyR2 using a knockin mouse model expressing the human catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia–associated RyR2 mutant (S2246L; serine to leucine mutation at the residue 2246).
Methods and Results—All knockin mice we examined produced ventricular tachycardia after exercise on a treadmill. cAMP-dependent increase in the frequency of Ca2+ sparks was more pronounced in saponin-permeabilized knockin cardiomyocytes than in wild-type cardiomyocytes. Site-directed fluorescent labeling and quartz microbalance assays of the specific binding of DP2246 (a peptide corresponding to the 2232 to 2266 region: the 2246 domain) showed that DP2246 binds with the K201-binding sequence of RyR2 (1741 to 2270). Introduction of S2246L mutation into the DP2246 increased the affinity of peptide binding. Fluorescence quench assays of interdomain interactions within RyR2 showed that tight interaction of the 2246 domain/K201-binding domain is coupled with domain unzipping of the N-terminal (1 to 600)/central (2000 to 2500) domain pair in an allosteric manner. Dantrolene corrected the mutation-caused domain unzipping of the domain switch and stopped the exercise-induced ventricular tachycardia.
Conclusions—The catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia–linked mutation of RyR2, S2246L, causes an abnormally tight local subdomain-subdomain interaction within the central domain involving the mutation site, which induces defective interaction between the N-terminal and central domains. This results in an erroneous activation of Ca2+ channel in a diastolic state reflecting on the increased Ca2+ spark frequency, which then leads to lethal arrhythmia.
- Received February 2, 2011.
- Accepted June 6, 2011.
- © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.