Cerebral Protection During Surgery for Acute Aortic Dissection Type A
Results of the German Registry for Acute Aortic Dissection Type A (GERAADA)
Background—Cerebral protection during surgery for acute aortic dissection type A relies on hypothermic circulatory arrest, either alone or in conjunction with cerebral perfusion.
Methods and Results—The perioperative and intraoperative conditions of 1558 patients submitted from 44 cardiac surgery centers in German-speaking countries were analyzed. Among patients with acute aortic dissection type A, 355 (22.8%) underwent surgery with hypothermic circulatory arrest alone. In 1115 patients (71.6%), cerebral perfusion was used: Unilateral antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) in 628 (40.3%), bilateral ACP in 453 (29.1%), and retrograde perfusion in 34 patients (2.2%). For 88 patients with acute aortic dissection type A (5.6%), no circulatory arrest and arch intervention were reported (cardiopulmonary bypass–only group). End points of the study were 30-day mortality (15.9% overall) and mortality-corrected permanent neurological dysfunction (10.5% overall). The respective values for the cardiopulmonary bypass–only group were 11.4% and 9.1%. Hypothermic circulatory arrest alone resulted in a 30-day mortality rate of 19.4% and a mortality-corrected permanent neurological dysfunction rate of 11.5%, whereas the rates were 13.9% and 10.0%, respectively, for unilateral ACP and 15.9% and 11.0%, respectively, for bilateral ACP. In contrast with the ACP groups, there was a profound increase in mortality when systemic circulatory arrest times exceeded 30 minutes in the hypothermic circulatory arrest group (P<0.001). Mortality-corrected permanent neurological dysfunction correlated significantly with perfusion pressure in the ACP groups.
Conclusions—This study reflects current surgical practice for acute aortic dissection type A in Central Europe. For arrest times less than 30 minutes, hypothermic circulatory arrest and ACP lead to similar results. For longer arrest periods, ACP with sufficient pressure is advisable. Outcomes with unilateral and bilateral ACP were equivalent.
- Received November 23, 2010.
- Accepted May 6, 2011.
- © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.