Increased Risk for Heart Valve Disease Associated With Antiphospholipid Antibodies in Patients With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Meta-Analysis of Echocardiographic Studies
Background—Heart valve disease (HVD) is frequent in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and the role of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) is controversial. Thus, our objective was to estimate the risk of HVD, including Libman-Sacks endocarditis, associated with aPL in patients with SLE.
Methods and Results—Studies were selected if they investigated the association between aPL and HVD in SLE patients and if aPL-negative patients were included for comparison. Data sources were MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, hand search, contact with investigators, and reference lists of studies, without language restrictions. Data on study and patient characteristics, risk estimates, and study quality were independently extracted by 2 investigators. Pooled effect estimates were obtained by using the DerSimonian-Laird method. Of 234 identified abstracts, 23 primary studies (15 cross-sectional, 7 cohort, 1 case-control) met inclusion criteria, including 1656 SLE patients and 508 cases of HVD. Compared with SLE patients without aPL (n=988), the overall pooled odds ratios for HVD and Libman-Sacks endocarditis in aPL-positive patients (n=668) were 3.13 (95% confidence interval, 2.31 to 4.24) and 3.51 (95% confidence interval, 1.93 to 6.38), respectively. The risk of HVD depending on aPL subtypes was the highest for lupus anticoagulant at 5.88 (95% confidence interval, 2.92 to 11.84) and IgG anticardiolipin antibodies at 5.63 (95% confidence interval, 3.53 to 8.97).
Conclusions—Overall, the presence of aPL in SLE patients is significantly associated with an increased risk for HVD including Libman-Sacks endocarditis. The risk conferred by IgG anticardiolipin antibodies is as strong as by lupus anticoagulant. Systematic echocardiographic examinations in SLE patients with aPL should be performed.
- antiphospholipid syndrome
- heart valve problems
- systemic lupus erythematosus
- Received February 25, 2011.
- Accepted May 6, 2011.
- © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.