Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone Genotype Influences Ventricular Remodeling in Infants With Single Ventricle
Background—We investigated the effect of polymorphisms in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) genes on ventricular remodeling, growth, renal function, and response to enalapril in infants with single ventricle.
Methods and Results—Single ventricle infants enrolled in a randomized trial of enalapril were genotyped for polymorphisms in 5 genes: angiotensinogen, angiotensin-converting enzyme, angiotensin II type 1 receptor, aldosterone synthase, and chymase. Alleles associated with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system upregulation were classified as risk alleles. Ventricular mass, volume, somatic growth, renal function using estimated glomerular filtration rate, and response to enalapril were compared between patients with ≥2 homozygous risk genotypes (high risk), and those with <2 homozygous risk genotypes (low risk) at 2 time points: before the superior cavopulmonary connection (pre-SCPC) and at age 14 months. Of 230 trial subjects, 154 were genotyped: Thirty-eight were high risk, and 116 were low risk. Ventricular mass and volume were elevated in both groups pre-SCPC. Ventricular mass and volume decreased and estimated glomerular filtration rate increased after SCPC in the low-risk (P<0.05), but not the high-risk group. These responses were independent of enalapril treatment. Weight and height z-scores were lower at baseline, and height remained lower in the high-risk group at 14 months, especially in those receiving enalapril (P<0.05).
Conclusions—Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system–upregulation genotypes were associated with failure of reverse remodeling after SCPC surgery, less improvement in renal function, and impaired somatic growth, the latter especially in patients receiving enalapril. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system genotype may identify a high-risk subgroup of single ventricle patients who fail to fully benefit from volume-unloading surgery. Follow-up is warranted to assess long-term impact.
- angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors
- congenital heart disease
- genetic association analysis
- heart surgery
- Received November 2, 2010.
- Accepted March 28, 2011.
- © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.