Relative Merits of Left Ventricular Dyssynchrony, Left Ventricular Lead Position, and Myocardial Scar to Predict Long-Term Survival of Ischemic Heart Failure Patients Undergoing Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy
Background—The relative merits of left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony, LV lead position, and myocardial scar to predict long-term outcome after cardiac resynchronization therapy remain unknown and were evaluated in the present study.
Methods and Results—In 397 ischemic heart failure patients, 2-dimensional speckle tracking imaging was performed, with comprehensive assessment of LV radial dyssynchrony, identification of the segment with latest mechanical activation, and detection of myocardial scar in the segment where the LV lead was positioned. For LV dyssynchrony, a cutoff value of 130 milliseconds was used. Segments with <16.5% radial strain in the region of the LV pacing lead were considered to have extensive myocardial scar (>50% transmurality, validated in a subgroup with contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging). The LV lead position was derived from chest x-ray. Long-term follow-up included all-cause mortality and hospitalizations for heart failure. Mean baseline LV radial dyssynchrony was 133±98 milliseconds. In 271 patients (68%), the LV lead was placed at the latest activated segment (concordant LV lead position), and the mean value of peak radial strain at the targeted segment was 18.9±12.6%. Larger LV radial dyssynchrony at baseline was an independent predictor of superior long-term survival (hazard ratio, 0.995; P=0.001), whereas a discordant LV lead position (hazard ratio, 2.086; P=0.001) and myocardial scar in the segment targeted by the LV lead (hazard ratio, 2.913; P<0.001) were independent predictors of worse outcome. Addition of these 3 parameters yielded incremental prognostic value over the combination of clinical parameters.
Conclusions—Baseline LV radial dyssynchrony, discordant LV lead position, and myocardial scar in the region of the LV pacing lead were independent determinants of long-term prognosis in ischemic heart failure patients treated with cardiac resynchronization therapy. Larger baseline LV dyssynchrony predicted superior long-term survival, whereas discordant LV lead position and myocardial scar predicted worse outcome.
- Received February 10, 2010.
- Accepted October 4, 2010.
- © 2010 American Heart Association, Inc.