Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection
Morphology and Outcome From an International Population-Based Study
Background—Late mortality after repair of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection is frequently associated with pulmonary venous obstruction (PVO). We aimed to describe the morphological spectrum of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection and identify risk factors for death and postoperative PVO.
Methods and Results—We conducted a retrospective, international, collaborative, population-based study involving all 19 pediatric cardiac centers in the United Kingdom, Ireland, and Sweden. All infants with total anomalous pulmonary venous connection born between 1998 and 2004 were identified. Cases with functionally univentricular circulations or atrial isomerism were excluded. All available data and imaging were reviewed. Of 422 live-born cases, 205 (48.6%) had supracardiac, 110 (26.1%) had infracardiac, 67 (15.9%) had cardiac, and 37 (8.8%) had mixed connections. There were 2 cases (0.5%) of common pulmonary vein atresia. Some patients had extremely hypoplastic veins or, rarely, discrete stenosis of the individual veins. Sixty (14.2%) had associated cardiac anomalies. Sixteen died before intervention. Three-year survival for surgically treated patients was 85.2% (95% confidence interval 81.3% to 88.4%). Risk factors for death in multivariable analysis comprised earlier age at surgery, hypoplastic/stenotic pulmonary veins, associated complex cardiac lesions, postoperative pulmonary hypertension, and postoperative PVO. Sixty (14.8%) of the 406 patients undergoing total anomalous pulmonary venous connection repair had postoperative PVO that required reintervention. Three-year survival after initial surgery for patients with postoperative PVO was 58.7% (95% confidence interval 46.2% to 69.2%). Risk factors for postoperative PVO comprised preoperative hypoplastic/stenotic pulmonary veins and absence of a common confluence.
Conclusions—Preoperative clinical and morphological features are important risk factors for postoperative PVO and survival.
- Received February 22, 2010.
- Accepted September 27, 2010.
- © 2010 American Heart Association, Inc.