Prevalence and Clinical Significance of Papillary Muscle Infarction Detected by Late Gadolinium-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction
Background—The frequency of papillary muscle infarction (PapMI) without rupture has not been fully investigated in vivo. Furthermore, the relationship between papillary muscle dysfunction and mitral regurgitation (MR) has been controversial in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the frequency and clinical characteristics of PapMI without rupture using late gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.
Methods and Results—One hundred eighteen ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients with primary percutaneous coronary intervention underwent cardiac MRI twice 9±4 days and 8±1 months (n=104) after myocardial infarction. MR was categorized by echocardiography. Of these patients, 40% were found to have late gadolinium enhancement of papillary muscle, in which the posterior papillary muscle was involved more frequently than the anterior papillary muscle (77% versus 26%; P<0.001). PapMI was encountered more frequently in patients with left circumflex and right coronary artery lesions compared with left anterior descending artery lesion (78%, 48%, and 13%; P<0.001). By multiple logistic regression analysis, only coaptation height was identified as an independent predictor of the presence of MR. The second cardiac magnetic resonance imaging showed that the infarct size had a positive correlation with left ventricular end-diastolic volume (r=0.41, P<0.001) and that PapMI was not associated with left ventricular remodeling (P=0.31). Deterioration of MR was not observed in patients with PapMI.
Conclusions—PapMI is more frequent than previously thought yet appears to have significant clinical latency. The size of the myocardial infarction, but not the presence of PapMI, seems to affect left ventricular remodeling, and PapMI is not obligatorily associated with MR.
- Received January 6, 2010.
- Accepted September 20, 2010.
- © 2010 American Heart Association, Inc.