Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme DD Genotype and Cardiovascular Disease in Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia
This article requires a subscription to view the full text. If you have a subscription you may use the login form below to view the article. Access to this article can also be purchased.
Background—Controversy exists as to whether the deletion/deletion genotype (DD) of the ACE gene polymorphism increases the risk of myocardial infarction (MI). Studies have suggested that the ACE DD genotype is associated with increased plaque instability. We hypothesized that the ACE DD genotype may increase the risk of myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease (CHD) in patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) or familial defective apolipoprotein B-100 (FDB) who, as a group, are at high risk of having lipid-rich plaques in their coronary arteries.
Methods and Results—We determined the ACE genotypes and incidence of MI or surgical intervention for CHD in 213 adult patients with heterozygous FH or FDB. The incidence of MI in 35 male patients who carried the ACE DD genotype was 2.5 times that observed in male patients with the II or DI genotypes, and the incidence of CHD in male patients with the DD genotype was 2.2 times higher than in those who had ACE DI+II. The potential effects of ACE genotype on CHD could not be directly compared in female patients because of a disparity in the smoking history of the genotypic groups. From logistic regression analysis, the estimated odds ratio associated with the ACE DD genotype was 2.57 for MI and 2.21 for CHD adjusted for age, sex, and smoking history.
Conclusions—The ACE DD genotype is associated with an increased risk of MI and CHD in patients with heterozygous FH or FDB. Determination of the ACE genotype in asymptomatic FH and FDB patients provides an additional means to identify those patients at greatest risk for the premature development of CHD.
- Received September 12, 1997.
- Revision received January 5, 1998.
- Accepted January 9, 1998.
- Copyright © 1998 by American Heart Association