Association of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Gene I/D Polymorphism With Change in Left Ventricular Mass in Response to Physical Training
Background The absence (deletion allele [D]) of a 287–base pair marker in the ACE gene is associated with higher ACE levels than its presence (insertion allele [I]). If renin-angiotensin systems regulate left ventricular (LV) growth, then individuals of DD genotype might show a greater hypertrophic response than those of II genotype. We tested this hypothesis by studying exercise-induced LV hypertrophy.
Methods and Results Echocardiographically determined LV dimensions and mass (n=140), electrocardiographically determined LV mass and frequency of LV hypertrophy (LVH) (n=121), and plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels (n=49) were compared at the start and end of a 10-week physical training period in male Caucasian military recruits. Septal and posterior wall thicknesses increased with training, and LV mass increased by 18% (all P<.0001). Response magnitude was strongly associated with ACE genotype: mean LV mass altered by +2.0, +38.5, and +42.3 g in II, ID and DD, respectively (P<.0001). The prevalence of electrocardiographically defined LVH rose significantly only among those of DD genotype (from 6 of 24 before training to 11 of 24 after training, P<.01). Plasma brain natriuretic peptide levels rose by 56.0 and 11.5 pg/mL for DD and II, respectively (P<.001).
Conclusions Exercise-induced LV growth in young males is strongly associated with the ACE I/D polymorphism.
- Received December 4, 1996.
- Revision received February 26, 1997.
- Accepted February 28, 1997.
- Copyright © 1997 by American Heart Association