End-systolic volume index at 90 to 180 minutes into reperfusion therapy for acute myocardial infarction is a strong predictor of early and late mortality. The Global Utilization of Streptokinase and t-PA for Occluded Coronary Arteries (GUSTO)-I Angiographic Investigators
BACKGROUND: Left ventricular remodeling is an important sequela of myocardial infarction (MI). Although remodeling occurs soon after MI, the effect of early left ventricular dilatation on outcome is not established and may be useful for early risk stratification. We assessed whether end-systolic volume index (ESVI) at 90 to 180 minutes into thrombolytic therapy for MI is associated with adverse outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the Global Utilization of Streptokinase and t-PA for Occluded Coronary Arteries (GUSTO)-I study, 41021 patients with evolving MI received one of four thrombolytic regimens. At 90 or 180 minutes into reperfusion therapy, 1300 patients underwent left ventriculography. ESVI was measured and correlated with adverse outcomes: 30-day and 1-year mortality and in-hospital congestive heart failure, shock, and reinfarction. Clinical variables were also tested in a stepwise logistic regression analysis to determine predictors of left ventricular dilatation. ESVI was directly related to all adverse outcomes with univariate analysis. ESVI of > or = 40 mL/m2 was independently associated with mortality (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 30-day, 3.4 [2.0 to 5.9]; 1-year, 4:1 [2.6 to 6.2], both P < .001). Male sex, prior angina or MI, weight of < 70 kg, heart rate of > or = 80 bpm, systolic blood pressure of < 110 mm.Hg, and anterior infarction were independent predictors of an ESVI of > or = 40 mL/m2. CONCLUSIONS: Left ventricular ESVI early into reperfusion therapy for MI strongly predicts adverse outcomes, including early and late mortality. The study establishes the role of very early left ventricular dilatation on outcome in MI and may be useful in identifying high-risk patients who might benefit from aggressive treatment, including the early use of ACE inhibitors.