Remodeling Rather Than Neointimal Formation Explains Luminal Narrowing After Deep Vessel Wall Injury
Insights From a Porcine Coronary (Re)stenosis Model
Background Oversized balloon dilatation of normal porcine coronary arteries usually heals without stenosis formation.
Methods and Results With the purpose of developing a stenotic model and examining the mechanisms of luminal narrowing after angioplasty, we produced a circumferential deep vessel wall injury by inflating and withdrawing an oversized chain-encircled angioplasty balloon in the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) of 20 pigs. Three pigs died and did not complete the study. In 8 pigs (group 1), serial coronary arteriography was performed. The lumen diameter (mean±SD) before dilatation was 3.4±0.4 mm; after dilatation, 4.2±0.6 mm; and at follow-ups 2 and 4 weeks later, 1.6±0.4 mm (P<.0001). In 9 pigs (group 2) examined postmortem 3 weeks after dilatation, histology revealed that the injury was deep (out to adventitia) in all arteries and completely circumferential (360°) in all but two arteries. Adventitia was markedly thickened as a result of neoadventitial formation. Injury correlated strongly with neointimal formation (middle LAD, r=.71, P=.00001), but neither injury nor neointima correlated with lumen size (r=.14, P=.46 and r=.34, P=.07, respectively); ie, neointimal formation did not explain late luminal narrowing. Lumen size, however, did correlate strongly with vessel size (r=.74, P=.000005). The late loss in lumen diameter observed angiographically in group 1 substantially exceeded that caused by neointimal formation seen by histology in group 2.
Conclusions The chain-encircled angioplasty balloon produced a circumferential deep vessel wall injury that healed by luminal narrowing. In this porcine model, arterial remodeling was more important than neointimal formation in late luminal narrowing.
Renarrowing after otherwise successful coronary angioplasty remains a major problem, occurring in 30% to 50% of treated arteries within 3 to 6 months.1 2 3 An injury-related exuberant healing response mediated by SMC proliferation and matrix synthesis (neointimal formation) traditionally has been considered essential in the development of late restenosis. However, antiproliferative agents have not been effective in reducing restenosis in clinical trials1 despite their proven effectiveness in reducing the proliferative response after arterial injury in rats and rabbits.4 The reasons could be that neointimal formation does not, as anticipated, play a critical role in the development of human restenosis and that injury-response processes in smaller animals differ significantly from those in humans.
Contrary to results obtained in rat arterial injury models, those obtained in pig coronary models seem to reflect the pathogenesis of human restenosis much better,4 5 and the pig is now widely used in experimental restenosis studies. The focus of research in these porcine models has also been SMC-dependent neointimal formation.6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Clinical data obtained in human coronary arteries indicate, however, that neointimal formation may not be as important as arterial remodeling in postinterventional restenosis13 14 15 16 ; this phenomenon also has been documented experimentally in rabbit and pig peripheral arteries.17 18 19 Recently, postinterventional remodeling was described in pig coronary arteries, but significant late luminal narrowing did not occur in that model.20 Therefore, we decided to develop a stenotic coronary (re)stenosis model in the pig and describe the processes responsible for the final size of the lumen late after intervention, focusing on both neointimal formation and arterial remodeling. The former was achieved by creating a circumferentially orientated deep vessel wall injury that healed by luminal narrowing; the latter, by serial angiographic examinations and extensive microscopic evaluation of the injured vessels.
Twenty 6-month-old, 75-kg mixed Danish Landrace–Yorkshire pigs were used in the study. Eight pigs (group 1) from an ongoing survival study underwent serial angiographic examinations to document in vivo changes in lumen size. Nine pigs (group 2) underwent postmortem angiography and histomorphometric examination. Three pigs died and did not complete the study. The pigs were handled according to institutional guidelines and the American Heart Association guidelines for animal research. The pigs were fed a normal nonatherogenic laboratory chow diet.
A 0.7-mm rough silver chain was mounted on the surface of a 3.5-mm PTCA balloon near its middle. The chain encircled the inflated balloon and was secured with thin threads fastened to the catheter at the proximal and distal ends of the balloon (Fig 1⇓). Inflated at 8 atm, the total diameter (balloon plus chain) was ≈4.9 mm. The diameter of the deflated chain-encircled balloon was ≈2 mm, and the deflated balloon was introduced into the coronary artery by a specially constructed guide catheter.
In Vitro Experiments
The intention was to produce a deep and completely circumferential (360°) injury. The reliability of the developed tools and techniques in producing such an injury was tested in pig hearts obtained from the local slaughterhouse.
In Vivo Testing
The pigs were sedated with 1000 mg ketamine (Ketalar) IM and 45 mg midazolam (Dormicum) IM, followed by 500 mg ketamine IV, intubation, and mechanical ventilation with 6 L/min N2O and 3 L/min O2. Anesthesia was maintained by infusion of ketamine and midazolam (400 and 12 mg/h IV, respectively). Fentanyl (Haldid) 0.5 mg/h was given against pain. Amiodarone (Cordarone, 900 mg) and ampicillin (Anhypen, 1 g) were used prophylactically to prevent fatal arrhythmias and infections, respectively. Before catheterization, heparin (20 000 U IV) and acetylsalicylic acid (500 mg IV) were given and later were supplemented with another bolus of heparin (20 000 U) just before the PTCA procedure. No further antithrombotic agents were given at any time until euthanitization.
After exposure of the right common carotid artery, a 14F introducer sheath was inserted for arterial access. A PTCA guide catheter was advanced to the aortic root, and selective coronary angiography was performed. The deflated chain-encircled angioplasty balloon was advanced into the LAD to a position where the diameter of the lumen was 3 mm (usually between the first and second diagonal branches). At that point, the chain, projecting 0.7 mm out from the surface of the inflated 3.5-mm balloon, was supposed to “cut” circumferentially into the vessel wall and “abrade” intima and media when withdrawn. The chain-encircled balloon usually stuck firmly in the LAD when inflated to 8 atm. When the catheter was pulled, the balloon suddenly yielded and moved quickly back through the LAD and out into the aorta, where the balloon was deflated and removed. Frequently, small pieces of tissue were found attached to the chain on the balloon after the procedure. The right carotid artery was ligated, the wound was closed, and the pig was returned to a recovery area.
Serial Coronary Arteriography (Group 1)
Coronary arteriography was performed before dilatation, 2 hours after dilatation, and at follow-up 2 (n=4) and 4 (n=4) weeks later to document changes in lumen size. The MLD was identified and measured at follow-up. All angiographic measurements were determined with end-diastolic frames. For calibration, a 2.00-mm silver ball was fixed to the tip of a guide wire and introduced into the distal LAD. The guide wire was withdrawn slowly during angiography. The angiographic diameter of the silver ball at the MLD site was used for calibration. Stenosis was calculated as stenosis=(1−MLD/predilated diameter)×100%.
Postmortem Procedures and Histomorphometric Analysis (Group 2)
Three weeks after dilatation, the 9 pigs in group 2 were anesthetized, and after thoracotomy, their hearts were removed and cannulas were inserted into the ascending aorta. The coronary arteries were gently flushed with 4% paraformaldehyde solution (pH 7.2) followed by infusion of a warm (37°C) barium gelatin mixture at 100 mm Hg. The contrast medium was hardened by placing the heart overnight in 4% paraformaldehyde at 4°C; ie, the arteries were fixed in the distended state. LAD was dissected free of the heart, fixed further by immersion in 4% paraformaldehyde, and then placed directly on radiographic films and x-rayed in different projections. Thereafter, the arteries were cut into cross sections at 3-mm intervals perpendicular to the direction of blood flow. All 3-mm segments were processed for microscopic examination. The final paraffin sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and a trichrome-elastin stain.
Area measurements were performed by point counting with a microscope (Olympus BHS) equipped with a video camera projecting the field of vision to a monitor. A computer with a stereological software package (GRID, Olympus) was connected to the monitor. This software can superimpose (on the monitor) a test system of regularly spaced points on the field of vision and defines the area (Ap) each point (P) represents. By counting the points hitting the area of interest, the software finds the total area (Atot) by multiplying the number of hits by the area each point represents (Atot=P×Ap).21 22 23 Point counting is a simple and reliable method for area measurements if enough points are counted. At least 60 points were counted for each area of interest, giving a coefficient of error <5% according to a published nomogram.22 The following parameters were measured (Fig 2⇓).
1. Injury score—the part of the circumference measured in degrees where tunica media had been abraded and adventitia exposed (gap angle; see Fig 2B⇑). The sides of the gap angle were drawn from the center of the lumen, defined as the cross point of two lines drawn perpendicular to each other, with the lumen divided into four areas of equal size (determined visually by superimposing a transparent sheet marked with a cross on a projected image of the vessel). The gap angle was measured directly with a protractor. An injury score of 360° indicates a completely circumferential deep injury.
2. Adventitia—area between periadventitial tissues (adipose tissue and myocardium) and external elastic lamina.
3. Vessel size—area circumscribed by the external elastic lamina. The vessel wall is by definition composed of an intimal, a medial, and an adventitial layer. Of note, the vessel size as defined in this study does not include the adventitial component of the vessel wall.
4. Media—area between internal and external elastic lamina (normal media) and, when the internal elastic lamina is missing, areas of remnants of medial tissue (well-organized SMCs with intervening thin elastic fibers).
5. Neointima—area between the lumen and the internal elastic lamina and, when the internal elastic lamina is missing, the area between the lumen and remnants of media tissue or external elastic lamina.
6. Lumen—area circumscribed by the intima/neointima-lumina border.
To evaluate and eliminate the effect of differences in preinterventional vessel size on the above parameters, LAD was divided into proximal (cross sections 2 through 6), middle (cross sections 7 through 11), and distal (cross sections 12 through 16) 1-cm-long segments.
Postmortem angiographic diameter stenosis was determined as follows: stenosis=(1−MLD/normal distal diameter)×100%.
The distal and not the proximal segment was consistently used as normal reference lumen because LAD proximal to the balloon inflation site was damaged by the withdrawing procedure. Consequently, by use of a smaller lumen as reference, the real stenosis severity was consistently underestimated. If side branches were present in the histological sections, it was not possible to demarcate the areas of interest exactly, and such sections were excluded from analysis.
Data derived from in vivo angiographic examination before dilatation, after dilatation, and at follow-up were first analyzed by one-way ANOVA and subsequently by a two-sided paired t test. Data derived from the study of all histological sections were pooled according to segment (proximal, middle, and distal LAD) and analyzed separately. Linear regression was performed to determine the correlation between two continuous data (Pearson’s correlation test for independent data). Additionally, the point of maximal histological luminal narrowing was identified in each LAD, and mean values of measurements performed here (n=9) were compared with corresponding mean values of measurements performed 3 mm upstream and downstream of the narrowest point in each artery (two-sided paired t test). Data are presented as mean±SD. A value of P<.05 was considered significant. The reproducibility of measurements of adventitial area and gap angle was assessed by double measurements in 20 histological sections and calculation of the interobserver and intraobserver variabilities.24
In Vitro Experiments
Different balloon and chain sizes were tested in 31 coronary arteries postmortem. It was confirmed that a deep and circumferential injury could be produced by inflating and withdrawing a chain-encircled angioplasty balloon within a coronary artery. With this procedure, intima and media were abraded, and adventitia was exposed. To produce a deep and circumferential injury, it was not enough just to inflate the chain-encircled balloon; it was also necessary to move the balloon by pulling the catheter. The pulling procedure created a rather abrupt distal border between normal and abraded media, whereas the proximal border frequently was irregular, with detached medial flaps projecting into the lumen. Three different chain sizes were tested without any obvious differences in circumferential extent or deepness of injury produced, and the thinnest silver chain (diameter, 0.7 mm) was used for the subsequent in vivo experiments.
In vivo coronary angiography (group 1) revealed that the lumen diameter before dilatation was 3.4±0.4 mm; after dilatation, 4.2±0.6 mm; and at follow-up, 1.6±0.4 mm (P<.0001, ANOVA; see the Table⇓). All coronary arteries had an acute gain 2 hours after dilatation, and all arteries had a narrowed lumen at follow-up (see the Table⇓). The late loss in lumen diameter was 2.6±0.7 mm. The mean angiographic stenosis was 53% compared with the vessel diameter before dilatation. Postmortem coronary angiography (group 2) revealed an MLD of 1.3±0.4 mm, corresponding to a 32% diameter stenosis compared with the normal noninjured vascular segment located 13.3±4.3 mm further distal in LAD (see the Table⇓). In group 2, major side branches departed between the MLD site and the distal reference segment in six angiograms. Therefore, the diameter of the distal reference segment (1.9±0.3 mm; the Table⇓) was smaller than one would expect from tapering alone. Only eight pigs underwent postmortem angiographic evaluation because of incomplete contrast injection in one heart.
Histology revealed that the injury was deep (out to adventitia) in all arteries, but the degree of circumferential injury varied greatly along the abraded arteries. Seven of the nine arteries contained at least one segment in which tunica media had been totally removed the entire circumference around; ie, a 360° circumferential and deep injury was produced in all but two cases.
Like the degree of injury produced, the resultant healing response varied greatly along the abraded arteries. The newly formed tissue (neointima) consisted of spindle-shaped cells surrounded by a rather loose extracellular matrix without elastic fibers. The cells reacted positively for α-smooth muscle actin by immunostaining (Dako 1A4). Neointima filled medial gaps and usually extended the entire circumference, also covering apparently normal tunica media and intact internal elastic lamina. At the base of medial gaps, thrombuslike material rarely was found. Where the external elastic lamina had been lacerated and within healed dissections between medial flaps and adventitia, a few small blood vessels containing radiographic contrast medium were sometimes seen entering neointima from the adjacent adventitia (neovascularization), but no capillaries were seen near the luminal surface. No obvious inflammatory cells were present within neointima.
Near sites of deep injury, adventitia stained strongly for collagen and was markedly thickened owing to neoadventitial formation (Fig 2⇑). Infiltration with mononuclear inflammatory cells was always recognized. No consistent correlations were found between adventitial area and injury score, late vessel size, or late lumen size. The reproducibility of the adventitial measurements revealed interobserver and intraobserver variabilities of 9% and 8%, respectively.
There was a strong positive correlation between injury score (gap angle) and resultant neointimal formation for all three vascular segments; the larger the injury, the more neointima was apparent 3 weeks later (Fig 3⇓). There was, however, no consistent relationship between gap angle and maximal neointimal thickness (proximal LAD, r=.40, P=.12; middle LAD, r=.64, P=.0001; distal LAD, r=.26, P=.27). Late vessel size increased with increasing injury score for proximal and middle LAD segments (Fig 3⇓), whereas the lumen stayed constant. For distal LAD segments, late vessel size did not correlate with injury score (r=.003, P=.99), and the lumen decreased with increasing injury score (r=−.59, P=.005). Maximal neointimal thickness (0.77±0.26 mm) and vessel size (7.05±4.50 mm2) correlated strongly (r=.77, P=.005) in the 11 histological sections from all three arterial segments (proximal, middle, and distal) in the seven arteries in which media had been totally stripped off. The reproducibility of the gap angle measurements revealed interobserver and intraobserver variabilities of 1.9% (4°) and 1.7% (2°), respectively.
Neointima, Vessel Size, and Lumen
Neointimal formation and late vessel size correlated strongly in all three vascular segments; the larger the vessel was 3 weeks after intervention, the more neointima had been formed (Fig 3⇑). Neointimal formation was expected to correlate inversely with late lumen size, but it did not (proximal LAD, r=.10, P=.69; middle LAD, r=.34, P=.07; and distal LAD, r=−.08, P=.73). Thus, neointimal formation did not explain luminal narrowing after deep vessel wall injury. In contrast, final vessel size correlated strongly with late lumen size in all three segments. That is, the smaller the vessel was at 3 weeks, the smaller its lumen was (Fig 3⇑).
Histology of Stenosis
Fig 4⇓ shows all histological measurements of lumen size, vessel size, and vessel wall components. In one artery (No. 5), a double lumen was seen in the distal segment owing to intramural vessel wall dissection. Consequently, this segment of the artery was excluded from analysis. Compared with normal distal vascular segments, dilated and abraded segments were enormously thick-walled. Alignment of the most stenotic segment from each LAD after the point of maximal stenosis and combination of all data (mean values, n=9) revealed more clearly the contribution of individual vessel wall components to vessel size, wall thickness, and luminal narrowing (Fig 5⇓). At the point of maximal narrowing, the lumen was significantly smaller than it was 3 mm distally and 3 mm proximally, despite a similar magnitude of neointima formation and similar or less tunica media present. However, the size of the vessel at the point of maximal luminal narrowing appeared smaller than it was 3 mm distally and 3 mm proximally. Furthermore, the size of the vessel correlated significantly with the size of the lumen (r=.79, P=.02). Thus, late vessel size and not neointimal formation was the major determinant for luminal narrowing at the point of maximal stenosis.
Adventitia was enormously thickened as a result of neoadventitial formation, but there was no significant correlation between adventitial area and vessel size at site of maximal stenosis (r=.44, P=.33). Neoadventitial formation was not more pronounced at the site of maximal luminal narrowing than it was 3 mm distal and 3 mm proximal to the narrowing (Fig 5⇑). In the normal reference segment more distal in the LAD, the lumen was 2.3±0.6 mm2, media was 0.8±0.4 mm2, vessel size was 3.0±0.7 mm2, and adventitia was 1.4±0.7 mm2. Comparisons between maximal stenosis and the normal reference segment showed that at maximal stenosis the lumen was significantly smaller (1.4±0.7 versus 2.3±0.6 mm2, P=.002) and adventitia was significantly larger (7.5±3.7 versus 1.4±0.7 mm2, P=.009), whereas vessel size was the same (4.1±1.6 versus 3.0±0.7 mm2, P=.07).
Dilatation of normal porcine coronary arteries with an oversized balloon usually creates only a single and longitudinally oriented slitlike medial rupture that heals in the course of 2 to 4 weeks, giving rise to an eccentric lesion that hardly protrudes into the lumen; ie, a stenosis rarely develops.6 7 8 20 Oversized stenting was introduced to create a more exuberant healing response that sometimes but not always results in late luminal narrowing.9 10 11 25 By preventing recoil, stenting preserves the acute luminal gain much better than balloon dilatation alone,26 and occasionally the lumen may paradoxically stay larger despite much more stent-induced injury, thrombosis, and proliferation.6 11
New Porcine (Re)stenosis Model
To increase the likelihood of obtaining a stenotic healing response without stenting (precludes late arterial remodeling), we maximized the circumferential extension of deep injury by retracting a chain-encircled balloon in LAD. This concept is opposite that suggested previously to minimize the healing response.27 28 Barath et al27 and Bonan et al28 introduced the “cutting balloon” and hypothesized that sharp and regular longitudinally oriented vessel wall incisions might limit the injury-induced healing response and reduce the risk of restenosis. We hypothesized that doing the opposite, maximizing the injury by creating an irregular circumferentially oriented deep vessel wall injury, would induce an exuberant circumferential healing response and increase the likelihood of getting the stenotic animal model we wanted. It worked; the healing response narrowed the lumen, and an angiographic stenosis developed 2 to 4 weeks later. We decided to evaluate 3-week-old lesions by histology because the neointimal healing response reportedly is maximal at that time.29
The depth of injury caused by oversized stenting10 and the circumferential length of medial rupture caused by oversized balloon dilatation7 8 20 were previously shown to correlate with resultant neointimal formation. Also, the present porcine model revealed a strong injury-neointima relationship. Of more interest, neointimal formation and lumen size did not correlate. Thus, neointimal formation did not influence the most important outcome parameter: the size of the lumen late after intervention.
Injury score also correlated with late vessel size. That is, the more a vessel is dilated, the more injury is produced and the more neointima is subsequently formed, but the enlarged vessel can accommodate a huge mass of neointima without luminal narrowing. Only if late luminal loss (includes both neointimal formation and vascular remodeling) exceeds the preceding acute luminal gain does a stenotic lesion develop. In the present porcine model, late luminal narrowing was caused predominantly by constrictive vascular remodeling resulting in a shrunken artery.
Like the degree of injury produced, the resultant healing responses varied greatly along the abraded arteries. The reason for that is not obvious but could be qualitative differences in local cell function that probably are related to the rapidity of complete reendothelialization, the degree of adventitial/perivascular damage, and the magnitude of inflammatory changes.18
Neointima, Remodeling, and Restenosis
Serial in vivo angiography revealed a late loss in lumen diameter of 2.6±0.7 mm, giving rise to a late MLD of 1.6±0.4 mm (see the Table⇑). The mean MLD at 4 weeks’ follow-up in group 1 was identical to that determined by postmortem angiography in group 2 (1.3 mm), indicating that similar results were obtained in the two groups. Histology revealed a minimal lumen area of 1.4 mm2 surrounded by 1.8-mm2 neointima (Fig 5⇑), which corresponds to a calculated 0.3-mm-thick ring of neointima at the point of maximal narrowing. As shown previously, our histological procedure results in tissue shrinkage amounting to 20% linear reduction.30 Therefore, the 0.3-mm-thick neointima seen by histology explains only 0.7 to 0.8 mm (2×0.3 mm+25%) of the 2.6-mm late loss in lumen diameter seen by in vivo angiography. That is, neointima accounts for no more than 30% of the late luminal loss, whereas constrictive vascular remodeling is responsible for at least 70% of the late loss in this (re)stenosis model. Compared with the normal predilated lumen size (3.4 mm), the calculated neointima thickness (0.7 to 0.8 mm) explained only a fraction of the observed loss in lumen (1.8 mm). Consequently, the vessel had shrunk, not only from immediately after the procedure to follow-up but also from before dilatation.
Remodeling is also important for late lumen size in the atherosclerotic rabbit restenosis model17 18 and some porcine models,19 20 31 and recent data indicate that remodeling also may play a very important role in human restenosis.13 14 15 16 Mintz et al13 14 15 16 used intracoronary ultrasound in humans and found that remodeling accounted for ≈65% of the late luminal loss (area). Thus, our (re)stenosis model mimics the human experience observed by intracoronary ultrasound. We are currently investigating the temporal interplay between acute remodeling (overdilatation and subsequent recoil), late remodeling (chronic enlargement or contraction), and growth (acute thrombus, neointimal formation, and neoadventitial formation) in this porcine (re)stenosis model with angiography, angioscopy, intracoronary ultrasound, and histology.
Neoadventitia and Restenosis
It was suggested recently that adventitial fibrosis could play an important role in restenosis by compressing the vessel (like scar contraction) or preventing compensatory enlargement during healing after angioplasty.32 We found impressive neoadventitial formation 3 weeks after intervention, and our data suggest that one mechanism of restenosis could be circumferential neoadventitial shrinkage, “strangulating” the artery to late luminal narrowing.
Remodeling also takes place in native atherosclerotic human arteries and may cause both compensatory vessel enlargement33 and arterial wall shrinkage.34 An important difference between native human atherosclerotic arteries and our injured pig coronary arteries is that severe adventitial damage is usually present in the latter. The adventitial damage in the pig model triggers neoadventitial formation that may be followed by neoadventitial shrinkage. We hypothesize that restenosis in human coronary arteries may be triggered by the same mechanism. During successful angioplasty in humans, the rigid atherosclerotic plaque is separated from the more compliant vessel wall components (plaque-free wall, media, and adventitia) that are stretched, and a tear usually extends deeply into the vessel wall.35 36 The adventitial and perivascular damage caused by stretch and tears may trigger neoadventitial formation and shrinkage (constrictive remodeling), which may cause late luminal narrowing. Some published illustrations of human restenosis do, in fact, reveal adventitial thickening at sites of deep vessel wall injury.37 38
A major limitation of this and most other porcine (re)stenosis models is the lack of preexisting vessel wall disease, like atherosclerosis in humans. This concern may, however, not be great for neointimal formation after arterial injury if, as suggested by some postmortem findings, the reparative response in diseased human coronary arteries originates from the plaque-free or less diseased vessel wall rather than the diseased part of the wall.36 Our porcine model involves tissue removal (medial abrasion) and may mimic debulking procedures like atherectomy better than balloon angioplasty. Medial and even adventitial tissue and plaque-free normal vessel wall are frequently retrieved by atherectomy,39 indicating that deep and circumferential injury may follow this procedure in humans. To minimize the influence of differences in predilatation vessel size in late luminal outcome, we evaluated proximal, middle, and distal LAD segments separately. However, minor differences in vessel size must have been present even within individual segments before dilatation, but they cannot explain the main findings of the present study. Finally, all data from the same vascular segment were pooled and analyzed statistically with the assumption of independence although only nine measurements per segment (one from each of the nine pigs) were totally independent. The results, however, were confirmed by the separate analysis of the independent mean values (Fig 5⇑), indicating that the conclusions drawn are valid.
A porcine coronary (re)stenosis model is described in which a deep and 360° circumferential injury was produced. The resultant healing responses narrowed the lumen, and a stenosis developed, clearly seen angiographically 2 and 4 weeks later. The stenoses were caused predominantly by constrictive vascular remodeling rather than neointimal formation, and adventitial processes could be of importance for the final outcome. This porcine coronary injury model may prove useful in testing the effect of treatments not only on postinterventional neointimal formation but also on arterial remodeling, stenosis development, and final lumen size—the most important late outcome parameter.
Selected Abbreviations and Acronyms
|LAD||=||left anterior descending coronary artery|
|MLD||=||minimal lumen diameter|
|PTCA||=||percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty|
|SMC||=||smooth muscle cell|
The study was supported by grants from Aarhus University Research Foundation, The Danish Heart Foundation, Danish Foundation for the Advancement of Medical Science, and Bristol-Myers Squibb, Denmark. Nycomed DAK donated the acetylsalicylic acid. We want to thank the staff at the Institute of Experimental Clinical Research for good working conditions and Ulrik Baandrup, MD, PhD, Peter Grønning Olesen, MS, and Niels Christian Emmertsen, MS, for assistance with the morphometric analysis and serial angiography examinations.
- Received August 16, 1995.
- Revision received October 23, 1995.
- Accepted November 3, 1995.
- Copyright © 1996 by American Heart Association
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