Suppression of thrombolysis in a canine model of pulmonary embolism.
BACKGROUND The brisk fibrinolytic response of canines has impaired efforts to develop a canine model of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Difficulties in retaining chronic embolic residuals were partially overcome by administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) (Circulation. 1991;83:1272-1279.). In this study, we used type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), a major inhibitor of the endogenous fibrinolytic system, to determine its efficacy in the suppression of thrombolysis in canines.
METHODS AND RESULTS Thrombus was induced in the inferior vena cava of anesthetized mongrel dogs with thrombin and a special double-balloon catheter; 2 hours later, the thrombus was embolized. In one group of dogs, activated type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) (130 micrograms) was delivered directly into the forming thrombus; in another, TXA (110 mg/kg) was given intravenously before thrombus formation; in controls, thrombus was induced without inhibitors. Cross-linked fibrin degradation product (D-dimer) appeared in the blood of control animals within 1 hour of thrombus induction (176 +/- 62.5 versus 1.02 +/- 0.39 ng/mL baseline; mean +/- SEM), was maximal by 4 hours (413 +/- 110 ng/mL) and remained elevated at 24 hours (90.8 +/- 19.5 ng/mL). Compared with controls, PAI-1 and TXA suppressed D-dimer release by 80% and 85%, respectively, over the first 24 hours. One week later, animals were killed, and residual emboli were harvested. Perfusion scan defects persisted in all animals at this time, but there were no scan defect differences among groups. However, emboli recovered from animals receiving PAI-1 still harbored immunoreactive PAI-1 and were, on average, more than twofold greater in mass (393 +/- 56 mg) than emboli recovered from either controls (183 +/- 76 mg) or animals receiving TXA (180 +/- 80 mg).
CONCLUSIONS Intravenous TXA and intrathrombus PAI-1 effectively suppress thrombolysis for 24 hours in canines. Thromboemboli enriched with PAI-1 appear to resist lysis for longer periods of time (up to 1 week). These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that PAI-1 remains associated with the embolus, where it continues to inhibit lysis, whereas TXA eventually diffuses out of the embolus, allowing lysis to ensue.
- Copyright © 1994 by American Heart Association