Abnormal atrial natriuretic peptide and renal responses to saline infusion in nonmodulating essential hypertensive patients.
BACKGROUND Nonmodulation seems to represent an inheritable trait characterized by abnormal angiotensin-mediated control of aldosterone release and renal blood supply and salt-sensitive hypertension. Recently, we demonstrated that atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) response to angiotensin II also is altered in nonmodulators. Moreover, an abnormal ANP response to acute volume expansion has been shown by others in hypertensive patients displaying some features of nonmodulators. These data induced us to hypothesize that nonmodulators. These data induced us to hypothesize that nonmodulation could be characterized by an abnormal ANP response to saline load.
METHODS AND RESULTS Forty-three essential hypertensive men were subdivided into low-renin patients (n = 12), nonmodulators (n = 15), and modulators (n = 16) according to their renin profile and ability to modulate aldosterone and p-aminohippurate clearance responses to a graded angiotensin II infusion (1.0 ng.kg-1.min-1 and 3.0 ng.kg-1.min-1 for 30 minutes each) on both a low- (10 mmol Na+ per day) and a high- (210 mmol Na+ per day) Na+ intake. The intravenous saline load (0.25 mL.kg-1.min-1 for 2 hours) performed on a low-Na+ diet increased plasma ANP levels in low-renin (from 14.30 +/- 4.68 to 23.30 +/- 7.52 fmol/mL at 120 minutes, P < .05) and modulating patients (from 10.95 +/- 3.55 to 18.21 +/- 5.42 fmol/mL at 120 minutes, P < .05), whereas it did not change the hormone levels in nonmodulators (from 10.77 +/- 3.25 to 13.83 +/- 5.70 fmol/mL at 120 minutes, P = NS). When patients switched from a low- to a high-NaCl diet, plasma ANP levels increased significantly in all groups. However, when the saline load was repeated on a high-NaCl intake, ANP levels increased in both low-renin and modulating patients (P < .05), whereas it failed to increase in nonmodulators.
CONCLUSIONS Nonmodulating hypertensive patients showed a reduced ANP response to saline infusion in the presence of a normal increase of plasma ANP with dietary NaCl load. The impaired ANP response to saline infusion could be due to a different distribution of volume load and contribute to determining the reduced ability to excrete sodium that is commonly described in nonmodulators.
- Copyright © 1994 by American Heart Association