Cardiac hypertrophy, aortic compliance, peripheral resistance, and wave reflection in end-stage renal disease. Comparative effects of ACE inhibition and calcium channel blockade.
BACKGROUND We wished to assess the respective roles of the antihypertensive and blood pressure (BP)-independent effects of antihypertensive drugs on arterial hemodynamics and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients.
METHODS AND RESULTS In a double-blind study, 24 ESRD patients with LVH were randomized to 12 months' administration of either the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor perindopril (n = 14) or the calcium channel blocker nitrendipine (n = 10). Repeated measurements of the following parameters were performed: BP (mercury sphygmomanometry), left ventricular mass (LVM, echocardiography), cardiac output (aortic cross-section and velocity integral), total peripheral resistance (cardiac output and mean BP), aortic and large-artery compliance (pulse wave velocity, Doppler flowmeter), and arterial wave reflections (augmentation index, applanation tonometry). Radioimmunoassay was used to determine plasma renin activity, aldosterone, and plasma catecholamine levels. Two-way (time-treatment) ANOVA for repeated measures was used for statistical analysis. Perindopril and nitrendipine induced significant and similar decreases in BP, total peripheral resistance (P < .001), aortic and arterial pulse wave velocities (P < .001), and arterial wave reflections (P < .01). At baseline, the two groups had LVH mostly due to increased LV end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) (perindopril, 54.3 +/- 1.4 and nitrendipine, 54.3 +/ 2.4 mm) with near-normal mean LV wall thickness (perindopril, 11.4 +/- 0.3 and nitrendipine, 11.2 +/- 0.4 mm). A decrease in LVM was observed only in patients receiving perindopril (from 317 +/- 18 to 247 +/- 21 g) (time-treatment interaction, P = .036). Nitrendipine had no significant effect on LVM (314 +/- 29 versus 286 +/- 32 g). The decrease in LVM observed with perindopril was associated with a reduction in LVEDD (49.9 +/- 1.6 versus 54.3 +/- 1.4 mm after 12 months) (time-treatment interaction, P = .04), while the mean LV wall thickness was unchanged (11.4 +/- 0.3 versus 10.5 +/- 0.5 mm). Cardiac alterations were not correlated with changes in BP or with alterations in plasma renin activity or aldosterone or catecholamine levels.
CONCLUSIONS In ESRD patients with LVH, ACE inhibition decreases LVM independently of its antihypertensive effect and of associated alterations in arterial hemodynamics. The decrease in LVM was due primarily to a decrease in LV volume, which may have resulted in these patients from chronic volume overload.
- Copyright © 1994 by American Heart Association