Local delivery of r-hirudin by a double-balloon perfusion catheter prevents mural thrombosis and minimizes platelet deposition after angioplasty.
BACKGROUND The major morbidity of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty is acute thrombosis and restenosis of the dilated lesion. Platelet-thrombus deposition occurs within minutes after injury, is primarily mediated by thrombin, causes acute occlusion, and contributes to late restenosis. Experimentally, specific thrombin inhibitors have prevented mural thrombosis. However, local therapy may be more effective than systemic treatment. We tested the hypothesis that high local concentrations of an antithrombin drug at the site of arterial injury following balloon angioplasty inhibit platelet thrombus formation equally or better than conventional systemic treatment and at lower systemic anticoagulant levels.
METHODS AND RESULTS Balloon angioplasty of the carotid arteries of 29 pigs was performed using systemic intravenous treatment with heparin (100 U/kg, groups I and II), suboptimal r-hirudin (0.3 mg/kg, group III), and higher-dose r-hirudin (0.7 mg/kg, group IV), which is the lowest dose that completely inhibited arterial thrombosis in the pig. Immediately after balloon angioplasty of the first carotid, additional local therapy with placebo (group I) or r-hirudin (groups II, III, and IV; 0.3 mg/kg in 1 mL) was administered with distal perfusion through a new percutaneous double-balloon catheter. After 1 hour of local drug delivery, angioplasty of the contralateral carotid was performed. Reflow for 1 hour was permitted to both carotids to compare the short-term effect of local plus systemic treatment with systemic treatment on quantitative 111In-labeled platelet deposition and macroscopic mural thrombus formation on deeply injured carotid segments. Local drug delivery of placebo compared with systemic heparin treatment resulted in no change of platelet deposition (x 10(6)/cm2, mean +/- SEM) in controls (group I, 91.0 +/- 23.5 versus 80.8 +/- 19.4), but local delivery of r-hirudin resulted in a significant reduction in group II (15 +/- 2.5 versus 71.3 +/- 14.5; P < .02) and group III (11.4 +/- 2.5 versus 80.5 +/- 11.4; P < .01) and was borderline in group IV (7.4 +/- 1.8 versus 14.1 +/- 7.4; P = .05), respectively. The incidence of macroscopic mural thrombus formation with local and systemic treatment was 86% and 75% in group I, 16% and 70% in group II, 14% and 71% in group III, and 0% and 16% in group IV, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS Local therapy with the specific thrombin inhibitor r-hirudin significantly reduces short-term quantitative platelet deposition and macroscopic mural thrombus formation following balloon angioplasty compared with systemic treatment of conventional doses of heparin and hirudin and requires a significantly smaller amount of the recombinant drug.
- Copyright © 1994 by American Heart Association