Thrombolytic effects of recombinant fibrolase or APSAC in a canine model of carotid artery thrombosis.
BACKGROUND Thrombolytic agents used clinically rely on the activation of plasminogen to plasmin. Plasmin possesses multiple actions including increasing thrombin activity and activation of platelets. Thus, after successful thrombolytic therapy, arterial hyperactivity and reocclusion may be the result of a predominant plasmin-induced thrombogenic action at the site of the residual thrombus. Fibrolase, a direct-acting fibrinolytic enzyme from southern copperhead snake venom, induces rapid clot lysis in vitro. Fibrolase does not rely on plasminogen activation or any other bloodborne components for activity and is not inhibited by any of the rapidly acting serine proteinase inhibitors in blood.
METHODS AND RESULTS We investigated the efficacy of fibrolase to lyse an occlusive thrombus formed in the carotid artery of the anesthetized dog. Electrolytic injury was initiated in both the right and left carotid arteries. Thirty minutes after both arteries were occluded, each vessel was infused with either fibrolase (4 mg/kg over 5 minutes) or physiological saline (over 5 minutes). In two separate groups of dogs, anisoylated plasminogen streptokinase activator complex (APSAC) (0.1 U/kg) was infused into the occluded vessel. In the artery infused with fibrolase, five of five dogs exhibited patency within 6 +/- 1 minutes of the infusion (P < .05 versus vehicle-treated artery; Fisher's exact test). In the contralateral carotid artery that received vehicle, the occlusion was maintained throughout the experimental protocol. APSAC alone lysed the thrombus in each vessel within 17 +/- 3 minutes. Five minutes after the end of fibrolase administration and in one of the groups administered APSAC, a glycoprotein (GP)IIb/IIIa antibody, 7E3 (0.8 mg/kg IV), was administered to prevent reocclusion of the patent artery. After 7E3 administration, the vessel treated with fibrolase remained patent in four of five dogs, and six of six APSAC-treated vessels were patent for the remainder of the observation period (2 hours).
CONCLUSIONS These studies demonstrate that local administration of fibrolase lyses a carotid arterial thrombus rapidly without excessive hemorrhage or hemodynamic compromise. The enzyme in combination with antiplatelet therapy (7E3) offers a unique mechanism for clot dissolution and may prove useful as a clinically efficacious alternative to presently used thrombolytic agents or may act in a synergistic manner with plasminogen activators.
- Copyright © 1994 by American Heart Association