Adjunctive intracoronary infusion of antithrombin III during percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. Results of a prospective, randomized trial.
BACKGROUND Heparin needs the plasma protein antithrombin III to function as an inhibitor of thrombin, and local antithrombin III deficiency might therefore limit the antithrombotic effectiveness of heparin during percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty.
METHODS AND RESULTS In the present double-blind study, 615 consecutive patients undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), of a total of 713 stenoses, were prospectively randomized to receive a bolus injection of 15,000 U heparin followed by a continuous intracoronary infusion via the guiding catheter of either 250 U heparin per minute or 250 U heparin plus 25 U antithrombin III per minute during the procedure. Four clinical variables, 19 lesion-specific characteristics, and 16 procedure-related variables were evaluated. Procedural success was assessed by quantitative angiography; procedure-related ischemic complications were analyzed during in-hospital follow-up. Procedural success rates (< 50% final diameter stenosis and no major ischemic complication) were similar, with 85% in the heparin group (n = 324 patients) and 83% in the heparin+antithrombin III group (n = 291 patients). Percent diameter stenosis after PTCA was 39 +/- 18% in the heparin group and 40 +/- 20% in the heparin+antithrombin III group (NS). There were no differences between the two groups with respect to PTCA-related acute vessel occlusion, angiographic evidence of intracoronary thrombus formation, post-procedure creatine kinase increase, Q-wave myocardial infarction, or emergency coronary artery bypass surgery. High-risk subgroup analysis revealed no beneficial effect of adjunctive intracoronary antithrombin III in any of the analyzed subgroups. In addition, although risk stratification according to the criteria of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force classification proved to be very useful for the entire study population, no beneficial effect of intracoronary antithrombin III infusion was observed in any of the different risk groups.
CONCLUSIONS Compared with heparin alone, adjunctive intracoronary antithrombin III therapy does not appear to have any beneficial effect on procedural outcome as well as type and frequency of acute complications during PTCA even in subgroups of patients with a high risk for thrombotic complications. Thus, a local deficiency of antithrombin III does not play a major role for the failure of heparin to abolish thrombotic complications during PTCA.
- Copyright © 1994 by American Heart Association