Characterization of ATP-induced vasodilation in the human forearm vascular bed.
BACKGROUND Animal data indicate that ATP derived from aggregating thrombocytes or endothelium induces an endothelium-dependent vasodilator response that is mediated by P2y-purinergic receptors and is reduced when high dosages are administered. This reduced vasodilator response to high ATP doses has been associated with the concomitant release of endothelium-derived contracting factors. In contrast to the endothelium-dependent vasodilator response, ATP as released from sympathetic nerve endings induces a P2x-purinergic receptor-mediated vasoconstrictor response that may contribute to the attenuated vasodilator response to high dosages of luminally applied ATP. The dual action of ATP might be important in the pathophysiology of disease states characterized by an impaired endothelial function and increased thrombocyte aggregation. This study was performed to characterize the vascular response to ATP in humans.
METHODS AND RESULTS The brachial artery was cannulated in 50 healthy male volunteers (age, 18 to 44 years) for drug infusion and measurement of mean arterial pressure. Forearm blood flow was recorded by venous occlusion strain-gauge plethysmography. ATP induced a dose-dependent vasodilator response that was significantly higher than the effect of equimolar adenosine infusion and that was not reduced by concomitant infusion of the P1-purinergic receptor antagonist theophylline. The infusion of the NO synthase antagonist NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) reduced the average fall in forearm vascular resistance (FVR) to acetylcholine (-59 +/- 6% [mean +/- SEM] versus -42 +/- 8%; P < .05; N = 10) but did not affect the vasodilator response to ATP (-68 +/- 3% versus -64 +/- 6%; P > .1; N = 10) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP; -53 +/- 3% versus -49 +/- 4%; P > .01; N = 6). The L-NMMA-induced increase in FVR appeared to be related to the type of vasodilator pretreatment, being 94.7 +/- 16.7%, 44.9 +/- 8.7%, and 40.8 +/- 7.3% for acetylcholine, ATP, and SNP pretreatment, respectively (P < .01 for acetylcholine versus ATP and SNP; P > .1 for ATP versus SNP). In contrast to animal data, high dosages of intra-arterially infused ATP (up to 1000 micrograms.100 mL forearm-1.min-1) did not reveal a reduction in the forearm vasodilator response but appeared to be similar to the maximal forearm vasodilation as observed during postocclusive reactive hyperemia.
CONCLUSIONS These observations indicate that ATP induces a potent dose-dependent vasodilator response that is not mediated by P1-purinergic receptor stimulation or by the release of nitric oxide. Moreover, in healthy volunteers, the vasodilator response to high intra-arterial dosages of ATP is not reduced by the release of endothelium-derived contracting factors or by the stimulation of P2x-purinergic receptors on the smooth muscle cells.
- Copyright © 1994 by American Heart Association