Rapid two-stage arterial switch operation. Acquisition of left ventricular mass after pulmonary artery banding in infants with transposition of the great arteries.
BACKGROUND Banding of the pulmonary artery (PAB) in preparation for arterial switch operation (ASO) in patients with transposition of the great arteries (TGA) represents a unique model of acute left ventricular pressure overload in humans.
METHODS AND RESULTS To establish the rate, magnitude, and determinants of left ventricular hypertrophy and the acute effect on ventricular function, serial bidimensional echocardiographic evaluations were performed on 26 patients with TGA after PAB. Mass, volume, and ejection fraction of the left ventricle were measured. Cardiac catheterization data before PAB and again before ASO were reviewed. The mean interval between the PAB and ASO was 9 +/- 4 days. The left ventricular to right ventricular pressure ratio before PAB was 0.5 and increased to 1.0 before ASO. The mean percentage increase in left ventricular mass from PAB to ASO was 96%, 95% of which was achieved in the first 7 days. The average rate of left ventricular hypertrophy for the entire period was 0.06 g/h and was 0.19 g/h during the interval from PAB to attainment of maximum left ventricular mass. The most rapid rate of hypertrophy was seen by day 2, with an exponential fall in the growth rate thereafter approaching zero by day 7. Ejection fraction was significantly reduced at 12 hours after PAB, but mean values returned to pre-PAB levels by 3.5 days after banding. The absolute rate of left ventricular hypertrophy correlated directly with body surface area but not to other hemodynamic variables.
CONCLUSIONS Doubling of left ventricular mass can be achieved in 1 week after PAB. Function falls acutely due to afterload excess and/or depressed contractility but recovers rapidly as compensatory hypertrophy occurs.
- Copyright © 1994 by American Heart Association