Use of ATP-MgCl2 in the evaluation and treatment of children with pulmonary hypertension secondary to congenital heart defects.
BACKGROUND Pulmonary hypertension results in increased morbidity and mortality in children after surgical repair of congenital heart defects. Various vasodilators have been unsuccessful in providing preferential pulmonary vasodilation in these patients. Identification of a more preferential pulmonary vasodilator would improve the assessment, management, and outcome of these children. To determine whether ATP-MgCl2 is a preferential pulmonary vasodilator in children with pulmonary hypertension secondary to congenital heart defects, ATP-MgCl2 was administered during routine cardiac catheterization, and the effects were compared with tolazoline. In addition, ATP-MgCl2 was infused intravenously during episodes of postoperative pulmonary hypertension.
METHODS AND RESULTS During cardiac catheterization in 28 children, the effect of ATP-MgCl2 on the pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and pulmonary vascular resistance index (Rp) was compared with tolazoline. ATP-MgCl2 (0.1 mg of ATP per kilogram per minute) decreased mean PAP by 24% (P < .05) and Rp by 47% (P < .05) without changing mean systemic arterial pressure or systemic vascular resistance. These effects were comparable to those of tolazoline (1 mg/kg). ATP-MgCl2 produced no significant side effects; tolazoline caused tachycardia, nausea, and vomiting. After cardiac surgery in 7 patients, ATP-MgCl2 decreased PAP by 14% (P < .05) and systemic arterial pressure by 6% (P < .05) and eliminated pulmonary hypertensive crises in 3 of 3 patients.
CONCLUSIONS ATP-MgCl2 is a safe, effective, and preferential pulmonary vasodilator in children with pulmonary hypertension secondary to congenital heart defects. It is useful for evaluating pulmonary vasoreactivity during cardiac catheterization and for treating pulmonary hypertension after cardiac surgery.
- Copyright © 1994 by American Heart Association