Slope of the instantaneous hyperemic diastolic coronary flow velocity-pressure relation. A new index for assessment of the physiological significance of coronary stenosis in humans.
BACKGROUND Coronary flow reserve (CFR), the functional index of stenosis severity more frequently used in the catheterization laboratory, is greatly affected by the hemodynamic conditions at the time of measurement and cannot be applied in the immediate assessment of the outcome of coronary interventions. The aim of the present study was to establish the feasibility and reproducibility of the assessment of the slope of the instantaneous diastolic relation between coronary flow velocity and aortic pressure during maximal hyperemia (IHDVPS) using a spectral analysis of the intracoronary Doppler signal, to assess the sensitivity and specificity of this index in the detection of flow-limiting coronary stenoses in comparison with CFR, and to study the possibility of determining the zero-flow pressure from the intercept of the velocity-pressure relation on the pressure axis during a controlled cardiac arrest.
METHODS AND RESULTS The instantaneous peak coronary flow velocity measured after intracoronary papaverine with a Doppler guidewire was plotted against the simultaneously measured aortic pressure, and the slope of the velocity-pressure relation in the phase of progressive diastolic velocity decrease was calculated during four consecutive beats. In nine normal arteries, a controlled diastolic cardiac arrest was induced by an intracoronary bolus injection of 3 mg adenosine. The IHDVPS could be assessed in 79 of 95 patients (83%), with a moderate intraobserver variability (0.4 +/- 11% after independent selection of different beats during maximal hyperemia). The IHDVPS showed no significant correlation with heart rate, mean diastolic aortic pressure, type of vessel studied, and cross-sectional area at the site of the velocity recording. The IHDVPS was significantly lower in arteries with > or = 30% diameter stenosis than in normal or near-normal arteries (0.71 +/- 0.48 versus 1.73 +/- 0.80 cm.s-1.mm Hg-1, P < .0000002). In the stenosis group, both IHDVPS and CFR were significantly correlated with the minimal luminal cross-sectional area (r = .46, P < .05 and r = .62, P < .002, respectively). The study of the velocity-pressure relation during long diastolic pauses showed a curvilinear relation between velocity and pressure in the lower pressure range, with an upward concavity to the velocity axis and no intercept with the pressure axis in most cases.
CONCLUSIONS The IHDVPS can distinguish between arteries with and without coronary stenoses and has a significant inverse correlation with the severity of the stenosis. Under the stable hemodynamic conditions of this study, the IHDVPS and CFR had similar sensitivities and specificities in distinguishing normal and stenotic vessels and demonstrated similar correlation with minimal luminal cross-sectional area. The curvilinearity of the velocity-pressure relation during long diastolic pauses, possibly due to a significant reduction of luminal cross-sectional area at low pressures, complicates the use of the flow velocity-pressure relation for the assessment of the zero-flow pressure.
- Copyright © 1994 by American Heart Association