Left ventricular wall thickness and regional systolic function in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. A three-dimensional tagged magnetic resonance imaging study.
BACKGROUND Regional performance of the hypertrophied left ventricle (LV) in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is still incompletely characterized with studies variably reporting that the hypertrophied myocardium is hypokinetic, akinetic, or has normal function. Different imaging modalities (M-mode or two-dimensional echocardiography) and methods of analysis (fixed or floating frame of reference for wall motion analysis) yield different results. We assessed regional function in terms of systolic wall thickening and shortening and related these parameters to end-diastolic thickness using tagged magnetic resonance imaging and the three-dimensional volume-element approach.
METHODS AND RESULTS In 17 patients with HCM and 6 healthy volunteers, four parallel short-axis images with 12 radial tags and two mutually orthogonal long-axis images with four parallel tags were obtained at end diastole and end systole. After the LV endocardial and epicardial borders were traced, three-dimensional volume elements were constructed by connecting two matched planar segments in two adjacent short-axis image planes, accounting for translation, twist, and long-axis shortening. A total of 72 such volume elements encompassed the entire LV. From each of these elements, end-diastolic thickness and systolic function (fractional thickening and circumferential shortening) were calculated. The average end-diastolic thickness was 15.8 +/- 4.2 mm in patients with HCM, which was significantly greater than that in healthy subjects (8.6 +/- 2.1 mm, P < .001). Fractional thickening was significantly less in patients with HCM than in healthy subjects (0.31 +/- 0.22 versus 0.56 +/- 0.23, P < .001). There was a highly significant inverse correlation between fractional thickening and end-diastolic thickness that was independent of the type of hypertrophy or age group. Similar inverse relations were observed between circumferential shortening and end-diastolic wall thickness.
CONCLUSIONS The myocardium in patients with HCM is heterogeneously thickened and the fractional thickening and circumferential shortening of the abnormally thickened myocardium are reduced compared with healthy subjects. The decrease in fractional thickening and shortening is inversely related to the local thickness.
- Copyright © 1994 by American Heart Association