Effect of an eccentric severe stenosis on fibrin(ogen) deposition on severely damaged vessel wall in arterial thrombosis. Relative contribution of fibrin(ogen) and platelets.
BACKGROUND Coronary thrombosis is a dynamic process dependent on the pathological substrate, the local shear forces, and blood factors.
METHODS AND RESULTS We investigated the effect of a severe (80%) eccentric stenosis on fibrin(ogen) interaction with a deeply damaged vessel wall, its relation to platelet deposition in thrombus formation, and the influence of time on thrombus growth. Porcine 125I-fibrinogen and autologous 111In-platelets were injected into pigs instrumented for extracorporeal circulation and treated with low-dose heparin (aPTT ratio < 1.5) that has been previously shown and herein confirmed not to affect platelet and/or fibrin(ogen) attachment. Tunica media, as a model of severely injured vessel wall, was mounted in a tubular perfusion chamber containing an eccentric axisymmetric sinusoidal stenosis obstructing the lumen and exposed for 1, 5, and 10 minutes to perfusing blood. A shear rate of 424 s-1 at the laminar, parallel parabolic local flow perfused segments one to two orders of magnitude greater at the apex of the stenosis. Fibrin(ogen) deposition, its axial distribution with respect to the apex, and its relation to platelet deposition were determined by an ex vivo analysis of the test substrates. Fibrin(ogen) and platelet deposition were both significantly higher at the apex of the stenosis than at either the prestenotic or poststenotic area at all the studied perfusion times (P < .02). However, fibrin(ogen) deposition demonstrated a significantly smaller degree of increase from the prestenotic area to the apex as well as a smaller degree of decrease from the latter to the poststenotic region, compared with platelet deposition (P < .05). Although both fibrin(ogen) and platelet deposition increased over time, the ratio of fibrin(ogen) to platelets showed a progressive decrease that became significant from 5 to 10 minutes (P < .03) at either low or high shear rate. The rate of platelet deposition was relatively constant; however, fibrin(ogen) deposition progressively decreased, especially at the apex.
CONCLUSIONS On severely damaged vessel wall, fibrin(ogen) and platelet deposition is maximal at the apex of the stenosis where shear rate is extremely high and parallel streamlines are deformed. Nevertheless, fibrin(ogen) deposition is significantly less dependent on high shear rate than is platelet deposition, and the pattern is not influenced by time. Finally, fibrin(ogen) deposition appears to be predominant in the thrombus layers adjacent to a severely damaged vessel wall regardless of the local shear stress levels and flow conditions.
- Copyright © 1994 by American Heart Association