Effects of enalapril versus losartan on regression of volume overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy in rats.
BACKGROUND The role of nonhemodynamic cardiac trophic mechanisms differs not only between different models of cardiac hypertrophy but also within the same model for development versus maintenance of cardiac hypertrophy. Our previous studies pointed to a major role for the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) as a cardiac trophic stimulus in the remodeling of the heart in response to volume overload by aortocaval shunt or minoxidil treatment.
METHODS AND RESULTS In the present study, we evaluated the effects of blockade of the RAS by the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril and the angiotensin II receptor blocker losartan on left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular mass and LV dilation in relation to changes in central hemodynamics during the maintenance of minoxidil and aortocaval shunt-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Both blockers similarly decreased LV end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) and LV peak systolic pressure, whereas cardiac output remained unchanged in both models of volume overload. This suggests a major contribution of improved LV performance and decreased afterload to the decrease in cardiac preload by the two blockers rather than decreased venous return. Both blockers reversed LV hypertrophy in parallel to their effects on LVEDP in both models of volume overload. In minoxidil-treated rats, the extent of reversal in LV mass and dilation by the two blockers was similar to "spontaneous regression" after discontinuation of minoxidil treatment.
CONCLUSIONS These results indicate that in contrast to the development phase of cardiac hypertrophy, the RAS does not contribute to the maintenance of volume overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy in these two models via direct cardiac trophic effects. The RAS, however, maintains cardiac hypertrophy indirectly by contributing to the persistence of high filling pressures.
- Copyright © 1994 by American Heart Association