Resolution of pace mapping stimulus site separation using body surface potentials.
BACKGROUND Several studies have related 12-lead ECG waveform during ventricular tachycardia to ECG waveform during ventricular pacing to identify ablation sites for therapy of ventricular tachycardia. QRS isopotential maps and QRS isointegral maps derived from body surface isopotential maps have also been correlated with left ventricular pacing sites with the same objective. The comparison process used is subjective and only semiquantitative. Improved accuracy of catheter placement may improve success rates of ablation therapy.
METHODS AND RESULTS This animal study was performed to determine the spatial resolution with which left ventricular pacing sites could be distinguished by body surface isopotential mapping. Potentials were recorded from 64 evenly spaced thoracic leads. Hexapolar or octapolar pacing catheters with 2-mm interelectrode spacing were placed percutaneously in the left ventricle in each of six dogs, and bipolar endocardial pacing was performed using each pair of adjacent electrodes. QRS isopotential maps of each pacing site for each catheter placement were cross-correlated by computer. Difference maps for each pair of pacing sites were calculated lead by lead and time instant by time instant, and root-mean-square voltage differences were calculated. Results indicated that correlation coefficients and root-mean-square error of voltage differences monotonically decrease and increase, respectively, with stimulus site separation. Both measures were significantly different (P < .05) for separations of 4 mm or more.
CONCLUSIONS A method of quantitative comparison of body surface potential maps can be used in normal hearts to localize ventricular pacing sites within a 4-mm range. The method may have utility in determining potential ablation sites for therapy of ventricular tachycardia or preexcitation syndromes.
- Copyright © 1994 by American Heart Association