Cardiovascular status in young patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
BACKGROUND Although the existence of diabetic cardiomyopathy in adults is firmly established, the presence of cardiac abnormalities in young diabetic patients is not universally accepted. We sought to determine the early stages of cardiac derangement and whether they are associated with renal dysfunction.
METHODS AND RESULTS Thirty-nine patients (29 boys; mean age, 17.6 +/- 3.4 years) with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus underwent echocardiography and timed overnight urine collection. Echocardiographic evaluation consisted of left ventricular mass, performance (shortening fraction, velocity of circumferential fiber shortening, stroke volume, and cardiac index), preload (end-diastolic dimension and volume), after-load (end-systolic wall stress and systemic vascular resistance), and contractility (velocity of fiber shortening relative to wall stress). Creatinine clearance and albumin excretion were measured from the urine sample. Glycosylated hemoglobin levels were measured; height and weight were measured; and Quetelet index (weight/height2) was calculated. These data were compared with control data. Left ventricular mass (26 +/- 6 versus 22 +/- 6 g/ht2.7, P < .01), the indexes of performance, blood pressure, and contractility (0.14 +/- 0.14 versus 0.003 +/- 0.03 circumference/s, P < .0003) were significantly higher in the diabetic patients than in control subjects. To evaluate the correlates of left ventricular mass and contractility in the diabetic patients, univariate and multiple regression analyses were performed. Significant univariate correlations of mass included albumin excretion (r = .36, P < .02), glycosylated hemoglobin (r = .35, P < .04), and stroke volume (r = .34, P < .03). A multivariate model included Quetelet index, albumin excretion, and duration of diabetes. Significant univariate correlations of contractility included insulin dosage (r = -.36, P < .02), creatinine clearance (r = .40, P < .02), and Quetelet index (r = .34, P < .03). A multivariate model included insulin dosage and creatinine clearance.
CONCLUSIONS Early onset of diabetes mellitus is associated with increased left ventricular mass, performance, contractility, and blood pressure. These cardiovascular findings are correlated with increased creatinine clearance and microalbuminuria. These relations suggest that alterations in cardiovascular and renal function may occur in parallel in adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
- Copyright © 1994 by American Heart Association