Mechanism of efficacy of 2-amino oleic acid for inhibition of calcification of glutaraldehyde-pretreated porcine bioprosthetic heart valves.
BACKGROUND Calcification is a frequent cause of the clinical failures of glutaraldehyde-pretreated bioprosthetic heart valves (BPHV) fabricated from glutaraldehyde-cross-linked porcine aortic valves. 2-Amino oleic acid (AOA) has been shown in previous in vivo studies to be a promising anticalcification agent. Our objective was to investigate the mechanism of calcification inhibition mediated by AOA pretreatment of porcine aortic valve bioprostheses.
METHODS AND RESULTS BPHV tissues were treated with an AOA solution for 72 hours before experimentation. The diffusion of AOA across both cusp and aortic wall was evaluated. The lag time for AOA to diffuse across the aortic wall was prolonged compared with that of the cusp. An extraction study was performed to determine the stability of AOA binding; the results indicated that the binding was relatively stable regardless of solvent extraction conditions. The interaction between ionic calcium and AOA on treated tissue also was investigated by evaluating the patterns of calcium diffusion across both treated and untreated tissues. The results showed that AOA significantly reduced the diffusion of calcium. AOA inhibition of aortic valve calcification (calcium level, 5.5 +/- 3.0 mg/g of tissue compared with control; calcium level, 91.2 +/- 19.5 mg/g of tissue) but not aortic wall (calcium level, 158.7 +/- 10.3 mg/g of tissue compared with control; calcium level, 157.5 +/- 7.9 mg/g of tissue) was demonstrated on representative specimens from valves implanted in left ventricular apicoaortic shunts explanted after 150 days.
CONCLUSIONS AOA covalently binds to glutaraldehyde-pretreated bioprosthetic heart valve tissue, presumably as the result of an aldehyde-amino reaction. Covalently bound AOA diminishes Ca2+ diffusion compared with non-AOA-pretreated bioprosthetic tissues. This may explain in part the anticalcification mechanism of AOA. Furthermore, AOA inhibits calcification of porcine BPHV cusps in the circulation.
- Copyright © 1994 by American Heart Association