Effects of long-term monotherapy with enalapril, metoprolol, and digoxin on the progression of left ventricular dysfunction and dilation in dogs with reduced ejection fraction.
BACKGROUND Recent clinical trials have suggested that therapy with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in asymptomatic patients with reduced left ventricular (LV) function can significantly reduce the incidence of congestive heart failure compared with patients receiving placebo. In the present study, we examined the effects of long-term monotherapy with enalapril, metoprolol, and digoxin on the progression of LV systolic dysfunction and LV chamber enlargement in dogs with reduced LV ejection fraction (EF).
METHODS AND RESULTS LV dysfunction was produced in 28 dogs by multiple sequential intracoronary microembolizations. Embolizations were discontinued when LVEF was 30% to 40%. Three weeks after the last embolization, dogs were randomized to 3 months of oral therapy with enalapril (10 mg twice daily, n = 7), metoprolol (25 mg twice daily, n = 7), digoxin (0.25 mg once daily, n = 7), or no treatment (control, n = 7). As expected, in untreated dogs, LVEF decreased (36 +/- 1% versus 26 +/- 1%, P < .001) and LV end-systolic volume (ESV) and end-diastolic volume (EDV) increased during the 3-month follow-up period (39 +/- 4 versus 57 +/- 6 mL, P < .001, and 61 +/- 6 versus 78 +/- 8 mL, P < .002, respectively). In dogs treated with enalapril or metoprolol, LVEF remained unchanged or increased after therapy compared with before therapy (35 +/- 1% versus 38 +/- 3% and 35 +/- 1% versus 40 +/- 3%, respectively, P < .05), whereas ESV and EDV remained essentially unchanged. In dogs treated with digoxin, EF remained unchanged but ESV and EDV increased significantly.
CONCLUSIONS In dogs with reduced LVEF, long-term therapy with enalapril or metoprolol prevents the progression of LV systolic dysfunction and LV chamber dilation. Therapy with digoxin maintains LV systolic function but does not prevent progressive LV enlargement.
- Copyright © 1994 by American Heart Association