Usefulness of transesophageal echocardiography for diagnosis of infected transvenous permanent pacemakers.
BACKGROUND Transesophageal echocardiography is superior to transthoracic echocardiography in detecting left-sided valvular vegetations. There are no data on the value of transesophageal echocardiography in the diagnosis of infected transvenous permanent pacemakers.
METHODS AND RESULTS Transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography was performed in 10 patients for whom there was clinical suspicion of infected permanent transvenous pacemakers. Transthoracic echocardiography detected pacemaker lead vegetations in 2 patients, whereas transesophageal echocardiography visualized pacemaker lead vegetations in 7 patients. Surgical confirmation was obtained in 6 of these 7 patients. Most patients had more than one pacemaker electrode in place. Local complications at the generator pocket were present in 6 patients. Staphylococcus was the predominant causative organism.
CONCLUSIONS Transesophageal echocardiography is superior to transthoracic echocardiography in the detection of pacemaker lead vegetations.
- Copyright © 1994 by American Heart Association