Three-dimensional echocardiography. In vivo validation for right ventricular volume and function.
BACKGROUND Current two-dimensional echocardiographic measures of right ventricular volume are limited by the asymmetrical and crescentic shape of the ventricle and by difficulty in obtaining standardized views. Three-dimensional echocardiographic reconstruction, which does not require geometric assumptions or standardized views, may therefore have potential advantages for determining right ventricular volume. Three-dimensional techniques, however, have not been applied to the right ventricle in vivo, where cardiac motion and contraction could affect accuracy. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility and accuracy of three-dimensional echocardiographic reconstruction for quantifying right ventricular volume and function in vivo. In particular, it was designed to test the accuracy of a newly developed system that provides rapid, efficient, and automated three-dimensional data collection (minimizing motion effects) and takes advantage of the full three-dimensional data set to obtain volume.
METHODS AND RESULTS The three-dimensional system was applied to reconstruct the right ventricle and measure its volume and function during 20 hemodynamic stages created in five dogs. Actual instantaneous volumes were measured continuously by an intracavitary balloon connected to an external column. Hemodynamics were varied by volume loading and induction of ischemia. Three-dimensional reconstruction successfully reproduced right ventricular volume compared with actual values at end diastole (y = 1.0 chi-3.4, r = .99, SEE = 1.8 mL) and end systole (y = 1.0 chi+ 2.0, 4 = .98, SEE = 2.5 mL). The mean difference between calculated and actual volumes throughout the cycle was 2.1 mL, or 4.9% of the mean. Ejection fraction also correlated well with actual values (y = 0.96 chi-0.3, r = .98, SEE = 3.3%).
CONCLUSIONS Despite the irregular crescentic shape of the right ventricle, this newly developed three-dimensional system and surfacing algorithm can accurately reconstruct its shape and quantitate its volume and function in vivo without geometric assumptions. The increased efficiency of the system should increase applicability to issues of clinical and research interest.
- Copyright © 1994 by American Heart Association