Effect of prolonged nitrate therapy on left ventricular remodeling after canine acute myocardial infarction.
BACKGROUND Prolonged nitrate therapy during healing between 2 days and 6 weeks after anterior myocardial infarction has the potential for limiting further left ventricular remodeling (or changes in topography) and preserving function. Longterm therapy throughout healing over 6 weeks might be more beneficial than short-term therapy over the first 2 weeks after infarction.
METHODS AND RESULTS The effect of prolonged nitrate therapy between 2 days and 6 weeks during healing after infarction on serial parameters of ventricular remodeling (scar expansion, scar thinning, ventricular dilation, and hypertrophy) and function (asynergy or akinesis plus dyskinesis and ejection fraction) by serial two-dimensional echocardiography, hemodynamics, postmortem topography (computerized planimetry, geometric maps, and radiographs), and collagen content (hydroxyproline) was studied in 64 instrumented dogs randomized 2 days after left anterior descending coronary artery ligation to various nitrate regimens (n = 32) over the first 2 weeks (subgroup 1: 2% transdermal nitroglycerin at 8 AM and 4 PM, n = 6; subgroup 2: 2% transdermal nitroglycerin plus 2.6 mg of sustained-release oral nitroglycerin at 8 AM, 3 PM, and 10 PM, n = 5; subgroup 3: oral isosorbide dinitrate, 30 mg at 8 AM and 4 PM, n = 11) or 6 weeks (subgroup 4: isosorbide dinitrate, n = 10) and in matching controls (n = 32). Nitrate therapy reduced left atrial pressure, mean arterial pressure, and the rate-pressure product compared with controls over the 6 weeks. Postmortem scar mass and hydroxyproline were similar in control and nitrate groups. However, scar stretching and thinning, cavity dilation, noninfarct wall hypertrophy, and apical bulging were less with nitrates, especially in the long-term subgroup 4. In vivo remodeling parameters between 2 days and 6 weeks after ligation showed that, compared with controls, nitrate therapy prevented further stretching of the asynergic segment, decreased the expansion index, decreased further scar thinning, prevented the increase in ventricular volumes, reduced the frequency of ventricular aneurysm, prevented the increase in ventricular mass, reduced the extent of asynergy, and improved ejection fraction. Although the beneficial effect on topography and function was seen in all nitrate subgroups, the overall benefit was greater with long-term therapy over 6 weeks (subgroup 4) than short-term therapy confined to the first 2 weeks (subgroups 1, 2, and 3).
CONCLUSIONS Prolonged nitrate therapy, in various regimens during healing after infarction, effectively reduced left ventricular loading and prevented infarct thinning, further infarct expansion, progressive ventricular dilation, and the increase in mass. These effects were associated with decreased asynergy and improved ejection fraction. The beneficial effects were greater with long-term therapy over 6 weeks than short-term therapy over the first 2 weeks.
- Copyright © 1994 by American Heart Association