Exercise induces cardiac dysfunction in both moderate, compensated and severe hypertrophy.
BACKGROUND Ventricular hypertrophy begins as a physiological adaptation to cardiac overload but progresses to a pathological state. We examined whether the extent of hypertrophy influenced the response to exercise in terms of its effects on regional and global ventricular function and transmural myocardial blood flow distribution.
METHODS AND RESULTS Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy was induced by aortic banding in puppies. The effects of treadmill exercise were compared in sham-operated control dogs (n = 7) and in dogs with moderate LV hypertrophy (47% increase in LV wt/body wt, n = 7) with normal baseline levels of LV systolic and diastolic wall stress and dogs with severe LV hypertrophy (85% increase in LV wt/body wt, n = 18), which exhibited elevated levels of LV systolic wall stress at baseline. The dogs with severe LV hypertrophy were further subdivided into those with either elevated or normal baseline levels of LV end-diastolic pressure and wall stress. The response to exercise in dogs with moderate LV hypertrophy was directionally similar to that of sham-operated control dogs for systemic hemodynamics and global and regional LV function, ie, full and subendocardial wall thickening rose, as did mean and diastolic arterial pressures, shortening fraction, and Vcf. The endocardial/epicardial blood flow ratio did not fall during exercise in these two groups. However, relations comparing either LV shortening, Vcf, or wall thickening with LV systolic wall stress during exercise demonstrated depressed myocardial function in the dogs with moderate LV hypertrophy. In contrast, in dogs with severe LV hypertrophy, exercise reduced LV shortening fraction, Vcf, mean and diastolic arterial pressures, and full and subendocardial wall thickening, and the endocardial/epicardial blood flow ratio fell to 0.73 +/- 0.07. There were no differences observed between the two subgroups with severe LV hypertrophy, but the global and regional wall function responses to exercise were more severely impaired than those in dogs with moderate LV hypertrophy.
CONCLUSIONS Responses of global and regional LV function and transmural myocardial blood flow distribution to exercise were clearly abnormal in dogs with severe LV hypertrophy with elevated baseline levels of LV systolic wall stress whether or not baseline levels of LV end-diastolic wall stress were elevated. Thus, it required more severe LV hypertrophy as well as elevated levels of LV wall stress to elicit qualitatively abnormal regional and global hemodynamic responses to exercise. However, even with moderate LV hypertrophy, which was well compensated under baseline conditions, qualitatively impaired contraction-afterload relations were observed during the stress of exercise.
- Copyright © 1994 by American Heart Association