Ventricular systolic assessment in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy by preload-adjusted maximal power. Validation and noninvasive application.
BACKGROUND Noninvasive cardiac-specific analysis of contractile function in patients with dilated heart failure remains problematic. This study tests whether maximal power divided by the square of end-diastolic volume (PWRmx/EDV2, or preload-adjusted PWRmx) can provide such assessment.
METHODS AND RESULTS To validate the load insensitivity of the PWRmx index and determine its response to contractile change, 24 subjects with chronic dilated cardiomyopathy underwent invasive pressure-volume catheterization study using the conductance catheter technique. Preload was transiently reduced by 30% using balloon occlusion of the inferior vena cava, and afterload impedance was lowered by 50%, induced by a bolus injection of nitroglycerin. Contractile state was varied by intravenous dobutamine, verapamil, or esmolol. PWRmx was calculated from the simultaneous product of ventricular pressure and rate of volume change (dV/dt), the latter derived from the volume catheter signal. PWRmx varied directly with preload but was minimally influenced by afterload. However, PWRmx/EDV2 was not significantly altered by either loading change. PWRmx/EDV2 did vary with contractility, correlating closely with changes in the end-systolic pressure-volume relation (r = .91, P < .001). To test the noninvasive application of this index, 12 additional patients were studied, with PWRmx/EDV2 derived from nuclear ventriculography combined with a novel method to measure central arterial pressures. Subjects received intravenous nitroprusside or dobutamine in random order. Ejection fraction increased similarly with both agents (+42.9 +/- 8.9% for dobutamine and +29.4 +/- 5.3% for nitroprusside, both P < .01). In contrast, PWRmx/EDV2 did not significantly change with nitroprusside but increased by 126 +/- 16.1% with dobutamine (P < .01).
CONCLUSIONS Preload-adjusted PWRmx is a steady-state index of ventricular systolic function that is sensitive to inotropic state and minimally influenced by physiological changes in afterload impedance or volume load. It appears useful for noninvasive cardiac-specific analysis of acute drug effects.
- Copyright © 1994 by American Heart Association