A new approach for local intravascular drug delivery. Iontophoretic balloon.
BACKGROUND Catheter-based systems are being developed to deliver drugs directly into the vessel wall. Pressure-mediated trauma and lack of homogeneous delivery are key limitations of these approaches.
METHODS AND RESULTS We studied a new catheter-based delivery system that uses electrical current to force the drug into the vessel wall. The in vivo feasibility of this approach has been assessed by delivering 125I-hirudin into porcine carotid arteries. Vascular levels of hirudin after active iontophoresis (4 mA/cm2, 5 minutes) were 80-fold greater than those achieved by passive diffusion (without electricity). Tissue hirudin levels declined over time; by 1 hour after delivery, 80% of the drug had left the vessel wall, and by 3 hours later, the levels of hirudin within the wall were similar to those achieved by passive diffusion. Autoradiography revealed distribution of the drug throughout the entire circumference of the arterial wall within the intima, media, and adventitia. Iontophoresis-mediated vessel wall trauma was minimal (less than 10% endothelial denudation and medial smooth muscle cell damage). Balloon injury after local delivery changed neither kinetics nor distribution of the drug into the arterial wall.
CONCLUSIONS (1) High local concentrations of hirudin in the arterial wall may be achieved with the iontophoretic balloon catheter. (2) The drug is distributed throughout the entire vessel wall without significant damage. (3) The retention of hirudin in the arterial wall is time dependent. (4) This technique might be useful to deliver therapeutic agents before or after percutaneous vascular interventions.
- Copyright © 1994 by American Heart Association