Correlates of left ventricular mass in a population sample aged 36 to 37 years. Focus on lifestyle and salt intake.
BACKGROUND Echocardiographically determined left ventricular (LV) mass predicts adverse cardiovascular events in the general population. We have assessed the correlates of LV mass in a population-based study focusing on lifestyle and salt intake.
METHODS AND RESULTS A random sample of 120 persons born in 1954 was invited; 93 (42 men) entered the study. The subjects' physical activity and alcohol, tobacco, and coffee consumption were quantified by 2-month dairy follow-up, and sodium intake was quantified by 7-day food records. Blood pressure was averaged for casual cuff measurements made 2 months apart. LV mass was determined by M-mode echocardiography, and stroke volume was determined by Doppler. Hematocrit and serum insulin were measured. In multiple linear regression analysis, LV mass was related positively and independently (P < .05) to body weight, systolic blood pressure, stroke volume, sodium intake, hematocrit, and energy expenditure in leisure-time physical activity. Additional analyses showed that the relation of LV mass to daily sodium intake depended on blood pressure (P < .001 for the interaction); the multiple regression coefficient (+/- SE) was 0.41 +/- 0.11 g.mEq-1 x d-1 (P = .001) in subjects with systolic blood pressure above the population median but statistically nonsignificant (-0.15 +/- 0.10 g.mEq-1 x d-1) in those with lower blood pressure. LV mass was clearly elevated only in persons with both blood pressure and sodium intake above the population medians.
CONCLUSIONS Body weight, blood pressure, stroke volume, sodium intake, physical activity, and hematocrit are independent predictors of LV mass among unselected persons aged 36 to 37 years. The synergistic interaction of dietary salt with blood pressure suggests that high sodium intake may sensitize the heart to the hypertrophic stimulus of pressure load. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these cross-sectional associations.
- Copyright © 1994 by American Heart Association