Augmented efficacy of external CPR by intermittent occlusion of the ascending aorta.
BACKGROUND After prolonged cardiac arrest, conventional methods of closed-chest cardiac compression are ineffective. This is primarily because of failure to generate minimal threshold levels of coronary perfusion pressure for cardiac resuscitation. This report introduces a new option for cardiac resuscitation by use of a combination of intermittent ascending aortic balloon occlusion, aortic infusion, and precordial compression to increase the pressure gradient for coronary perfusion.
METHODS AND RESULTS Twenty anesthetized, mechanically ventilated, normovolemic domestic pigs were investigated. A 10F balloon catheter was advanced from the left femoral artery into the ascending aorta. Ventricular fibrillation was induced with an AC current delivered through an electrode catheter advanced into the right ventricle. Precordial compression was initiated after 7 minutes of untreated ventricular fibrillation. The animals were randomized to one of four groups: (1) balloon occlusion with proximal infusion of oxygenated saline, (2) balloon occlusion alone, (3) proximal aortic infusion together with epinephrine without balloon occlusion, and (4) injection of epinephrine without balloon occlusion or proximal infusion. For balloon occlusion, the balloon was inflated for 30 seconds during each minute of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. In the subsets of animals that received infusions, oxygenated saline (30 mL) was injected into the proximal aorta immediately after balloon occlusion. Epinephrine was used in two subsets: It was injected as a bolus in amounts of 30 micrograms/kg into the right atrium at 30 seconds after start of precordial compression and repeated as required to maintain coronary perfusion pressure within the range of 25 to 30 mm Hg. Defibrillation was attempted at 1 minute after start of precordial compression and at 1-minute intervals thereafter. Resuscitation attempts were continued until there was return of spontaneous circulation or for a total of 30 minutes after start of precordial compression. Coronary perfusion pressure generated by precordial compression was significantly increased after balloon occlusion. Each of 10 animals was successfully resuscitated and survived for 48 hours after balloon occlusion whether or not it was combined with infusion. Three of five animals were resuscitated by a combination of infusion and epinephrine in the absence of aortic occlusion, but none survived for 48 hours (P = .02). Only one epinephrine-treated animal was successfully resuscitated and survived for 48 hours in the absence of balloon occlusion or infusion (P < .05).
CONCLUSIONS Ascending aortic balloon occlusion with or without proximal aortic infusion strikingly increased resuscitability and 48-hour survival after cardiac arrest under conditions when conventional methods failed.
- Copyright © 1993 by American Heart Association