Tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia. Rehabilitation of diminutive pulmonary arteries.
BACKGROUND Patients with tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary atresia, and diminutive pulmonary arteries are a high-risk group for whom there is no consensus on the correct approach to medical management. The purpose of this report is to review a 14-year experience in the treatment of these patients comparing management schemes.
METHODS AND RESULTS Between January 1978 and August 1988, 91 patients with tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary atresia had an adequate evaluation of their pulmonary artery anatomy before any surgical management. Forty-eight of these patients had diminutive pulmonary arteries (38 to 104 mm2/m2) supplied by aortopulmonary collaterals and were managed in four different fashions. Of the 9 patients repaired primarily, 7 died early and the two survivors had poor hemodynamic outcome. Of the 9 patients conservatively managed with no intervention before 5 years of age, 4 died and only 1 had a satisfactory hemodynamic result after repair. Of 10 shunted patients, 3 died and 3 had satisfactory repairs. Since 1984, we have rehabilitated pulmonary arteries with (1) right ventricle to pulmonary artery surgical graft, (2) balloon dilation of residual pulmonary artery stenoses and embolization of collaterals, and (3) surgical closure of ventricular septal defect and repair of remaining obstructions. Of 20 patients so managed, 7 died after various stages, but 10 of 20 had complete repairs. All repaired patients with subsystemic right ventricular pressures had at least one successful pulmonary artery dilation.
CONCLUSIONS A combined catheter-surgery approach begun at an early age in patients with tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary atresia with diminutive pulmonary arteries appears to enhance the chances of satisfactory complete repair.
- Copyright © 1993 by American Heart Association