Echocardiographic follow-up of atrial septal defect after catheter closure by double-umbrella device.
BACKGROUND Transcatheter device occlusion of atrial septal defects is an attractive approach, but its efficacy and place in patient management remain to be determined.
METHODS AND RESULTS To evaluate the medium-term results of atrial septal defect device occlusion and factors influencing residual shunting, transesophageal and transthoracic echocardiograms of 49 patients were reviewed. Transesophageal echocardiograms on 48 patients immediately following surgical closure revealed residual shunting in 2% compared with 91% after device occlusion; this proportion decreased to 53% after a mean follow-up of 10 months. The actuarial analysis suggests a progressive resolution of shunting with time. One patient had residual shunting by transesophageal echocardiography immediately after surgical closure compared with 29 after a mean follow-up of 10 months after device occlusion. Residual shunting was not influenced by (1) dimension, location, or position with relation to the device as assessed by transesophageal echocardiography; (2) location of the defect; or (3) device size relative to the stretched dimension of the defect. In 15 patients, a poor correlation existed between transesophageal and transthoracic echocardiographic findings. Variability in serial transthoracic echocardiographic findings was observed in 14. Right ventricular dimension, heart size, and presence of a murmur at follow-up did not correlate with the presence or size of residual shunting after device occlusion.
CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that ongoing spontaneous resolution of residual shunting occurs after device insertion. Factors related to the defect or device could not predict eventual resolution of residual shunting. Transthoracic echocardiography in the follow-up of these patients may not be reliable in determining presence of residual shunting.
- Copyright © 1993 by American Heart Association