Echocardiographic assessment of mitral valve size in obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Anatomic validation from mitral valve specimen.
BACKGROUND In patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, obstruction to left ventricular outflow is produced by systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve. In many of these patients, the mitral leaflets are elongated and increased in overall size. Mitral valve size may be responsible, in part, for the presence and magnitude of the outflow gradient and the pattern of systolic anterior motion of the leaflets. It may also influence the effectiveness of ventricular septal myotomy-myectomy in relieving subaortic obstruction. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to determine whether mitral valve dimensions could be assessed in quantitative terms from the echocardiogram in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
METHODS AND RESULTS A group of 37 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was selected for this study by virtue of having a high-quality transthoracic or intraoperative echocardiogram suitable for certain quantitative measurements from stop-frame images as well as a morphologically intact mitral valve specimen (removed during surgery). Seven measurements of mitral valve dimensions were obtained from the two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiograms. A univariate regression analysis identified the mitral valve opening area as the best single predictor of actual mitral leaflet area measured from the specimen (r2 = .75; r = .87). The linear relation between mitral valve opening area as assessed by two-dimensional echocardiography and actual mitral leaflet area measured from the mitral valve specimen accounted for approximately 75% of the variability in mitral leaflet area. With such statistical models, it was possible to reliably identify from the echocardiogram enlarged mitral valves (> or = 12.0 cm2) in 16 of 19 patients (84%) and normal-sized valves in 15 of 18 patients (83%).
CONCLUSIONS In a selected group of patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, a model derived from a regression analysis of quantitative echocardiographic measurements permitted (with good precision) estimation of actual mitral leaflet area and consequently overall mitral valve size and the discrimination of enlarged from normal-sized mitral valves.
- Copyright © 1993 by American Heart Association