A communitywide perspective of sex differences and temporal trends in the incidence and survival rates after acute myocardial infarction and out-of-hospital deaths caused by coronary heart disease.
BACKGROUND The purpose of the study was to examine overall differences and temporal trends therein between men and women regarding the incidence rates, in-hospital and long-term survival after initial acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and out-of-hospital deaths caused by coronary disease.
METHODS AND RESULTS This nonconcurrent prospective study was carried out in 16 teaching and community hospitals in Worcester, Mass., in six time periods between 1975 and 1988. A total of 3,148 patients hospitalized with validated initial AMI comprised the study sample. The age-adjusted incidence rates of initial AMI increased between 1975 and 1981 in the two sexes, with a marked decrease thereafter; these rates declined by 26% in men and by 22% in women between 1975 and 1988. The overall unadjusted in-hospital case-fatality rates after initial AMI were significantly higher in women (21.7%) than in men (12.7%). Age- and multivariable-adjusted in-hospital case-fatality rates, however, were not significantly different for men compared with women (multivariate-adjusted OR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.70, 1.16). No clear trends in in-hospital case-fatality rates were observed in men or women over the periods under study. There were no significant sex differences in the age-adjusted long-term survival rates of discharged hospital survivors of AMI. The multivariate-adjusted risk of total mortality among discharged hospital survivors, however, was significantly increased in men (multivariate-adjusted OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.03, 1.39); neither of the sexes experienced an improvement over time in long-term prognosis. The incidence rates of out-of-hospital deaths caused by coronary disease declined by 60% in men and 69% in women between 1975 and 1988.
CONCLUSIONS The results of this multihospital, community-based study suggest declines in the incidence rates of AMI and out-of-hospital deaths caused by coronary disease in men and women over the period under study (1975-1988). No significant sex differences in in-hospital survival were observed, whereas a poorer long-term survival experience after hospital discharge was observed for men compared with women after controlling for potentially confounding prognostic factors.
- Copyright © 1993 by American Heart Association