Significance of smoking in patients receiving thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction. Experience gleaned from the International Tissue Plasminogen Activator/Streptokinase Mortality Trial.
BACKGROUND Despite the fact that smoking is a well-established risk factor for the development of coronary artery disease, some investigators have noted that hospital mortality after acute myocardial infarction is lower in patients who smoke than in nonsmoking patients. To evaluate the association of smoking with mortality during hospitalization after thrombolytic therapy and 6 months afterward, we analyzed the results of the International Tissue Plasminogen Activator/Streptokinase Mortality Trial.
METHODS AND RESULTS Patients were divided into three groups: nonsmokers (those who never smoked), ex-smokers, and active smokers. Multivariate and univariate comparisons were made with respect to baseline characteristics and clinical outcome. There were 2,366 nonsmokers, 2,244 ex-smokers, and 3,649 active smokers. The baseline characteristics of nonsmoking patients differed significantly from the ex-smokers and active smokers. The nonsmoking group included more women than the ex-smokers or active smokers (45% versus 10.6% and 17.6%, respectively), was older (67 +/- 10 years versus 64 +/- 10 years and 58 +/- 11 years), had a higher rate of diabetes mellitus (16.3% versus 11.1% and 7.5%), and had a worse Killip class at admission. Nonsmoking patients and ex-smokers experienced more in-hospital reinfarction than active smokers (4.7% and 5% versus 2.7%, p < 0.0001, respectively). Nonsmokers experienced more in-hospital shock than the ex-smokers or active smokers (9.2% versus 6.4% and 5.8%, p < 0.0001), stroke (1.9% versus 1.8% and 0.8%, p < 0.0001), and bleeding (7.2% versus 6.5% and 4.4%, p < 0.0001). They also experienced a higher in-hospital and 6-month mortality (12.8% and 17.6%) than ex-smokers (8.2% and 12.1%) or active smokers (5.4% and 7.8%) (p < 0.0001). A multivariate analysis accounting for all baseline characteristics demonstrated a significant association between nonsmoking and increased hospital mortality, with an odds ratio of 1.42 (confidence limits, 1.15-1.72). Among active smokers, there was a nonsignificant trend for mortality rates to decrease with increasing numbers of cigarettes smoked per day.
CONCLUSIONS This retrospective analysis indicates that smokers receiving thrombolytic therapy after acute myocardial infarction have significantly better hospital and 6-month outcome than nonsmokers or ex-smokers. However, smokers sustained their infarction at a significantly earlier age than nonsmokers, and strenuous efforts should continue to be made to decrease the incidence of new and continued smoking.
- Copyright © 1993 by American Heart Association