Long-term outcome of patients with depressed left ventricular function undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. The NHLBI PTCA Registry.
BACKGROUND Coronary revascularization with bypass has been shown to improve survival in patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction. In these patients, use of nonsurgical revascularization with percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) is increasing, although their long-term outcome has not been well delineated. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the outcome of angioplasty in patients with decreased left ventricular function and contrast it with the results in patients with normal left ventricular function.
METHODS AND RESULTS In the 1985-1986 National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's PTCA Registry, of 1,802 patients undergoing PTCA, 244 patients (13.5%) had an ejection fraction of < or = 45% (mean, 39.6 +/- 6.8%). These patients had a higher incidence of prior infarction, a longer and worse history of manifestations of coronary disease, and more extensive coronary artery disease than patients with well-preserved function; 88% and 91%, respectively, had successful dilation of at least one lesion (nonsignificant difference). However, patients with decreased left ventricular function had a decreased frequency of successful dilation of all lesions in which PTCA was attempted (76% versus 84%, p < 0.01). There were no statistically significant differences in in-hospital complications--death occurred in 0.8% and 0.7%, nonfatal myocardial infarction occurred in 4.9% and 4.5%, and emergency surgical revascularization was performed in 4.5% and 3.2%, respectively. Patients were followed for a mean of 4.1 years; during this time, patients with decreased left ventricular function had significantly worse survival and combined event-free survival. Despite this, at 4 years, 87% of the patients with a mean ejection fraction of 39.6% remained alive, and 77% were alive and had not experienced infarction or required bypass.
CONCLUSIONS PTCA is effective in selected patients with depressed left ventricular function. Initial outcome and risk-benefit ratio are excellent. Successful dilation of at least one vessel was achieved in 88% of patients with depressed left ventricular function and in 91% of patients with more normal left ventricular function. The former group, however, had a decreased incidence of successful dilation in all lesions in which dilation was attempted (76% versus 84%, p < 0.01). There was no significant difference in in-hospital complications between the two groups. During follow-up, patients with decreased left ventricular function had worse event-free survival, although 77% were alive without infarction or bypass grafting at 4 years.
- Copyright © 1993 by American Heart Association