Induction of endothelial cell expression of the plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 gene by thrombosis in vivo.
BACKGROUND We have shown previously that products from activated platelets can augment synthesis of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) in cultured endothelial and hepatoma (Hep G2) cells in vitro and increase plasma PAI-1 activity in vivo in rabbits. Accordingly, the effects of activation of platelets associated with thrombosis and thrombolysis in vivo on plasma PAI-1 activity and expression of the PAI-1 gene in endothelium, liver, and other organs were characterized.
METHODS AND RESULTS Endothelial injury giving rise to platelet-rich thrombi was induced with electrical stimulation in carotid arteries in rabbits. Clot lysis and recanalization were induced subsequently with intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and verified with Doppler flow probes. Plasma PAI-1 activity (mean +/- SD) increased from 6 +/- 2 arbitrary units (AU)/ml to 129 +/- 48 AU/ml (n = 15) within several hours after recanalization. When t-PA had failed to induce recanalization, the increase was much less (from 7 +/- 2 to 42 +/- 23 AU/ml, n = 11). To define mechanisms responsible for these changes, PAI-1 messenger RNA (mRNA) was evaluated by Northern blot analysis and localized in tissues by in situ hybridization. Strong and consistent induction of PAI-1 mRNA was evident in aorta, heart, and liver of animals subjected to thrombosis (twofold to threefold increases compared with values in controls), particularly in those in which thrombolysis had been induced (fourfold to sixfold). After thrombolysis, an intense, PAI-1 mRNA-specific signal was detected in endothelium of aorta, liver, and heart, with less intense signals in endothelium of lung, adrenals, and kidneys.
CONCLUSIONS The increases in plasma PAI-1 activity follow a preceding increase in endothelial cell expression of the PAI-1 gene as reflected by PAI-1 mRNA levels. Thus, increased synthesis of endothelial cell PAI-1 after thrombosis and thrombolysis may attenuate endogenous fibrinolysis early after coronary thrombolysis, thereby potentiating early, thrombotic reocclusion.
- Copyright © 1992 by American Heart Association