Evaluation of left ventricular segmental wall motion in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with myocardial tagging.
BACKGROUND Segmental wall motion was assessed noninvasively in eight patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and six healthy volunteers by magnetic resonance myocardial tagging.
METHODS AND RESULTS Localization scans were performed for determination of the true short-axis views of the left ventricle (double-angulated view). Spatial modulation of magnetization was used to produce a rectangular grid of landmarks. Distortion of the grid was assessed at end diastole, mid systole, and end systole with multiphase gradient echoes. Image sets were acquired at three different planes, namely, the base, the equator, and the apex. Quantitative evaluation was carried out by computer-assisted image analysis. Each individual grid crossing point was identified automatically and the displacement calculated. A polar coordinate system with the center of gravity as motion reference point was chosen to assess fractional rotation and radial displacement at the endocardial, midwall, and epicardial layers of the septal, anterior, posterior, and inferior regions. A wringing motion of the left ventricle with a clockwise rotation of 5.0 +/- 2.4 degrees at the base and a counterclockwise rotation of -9.6 +/- 2.9 degrees at the apex was observed in control subjects. An equal rotation of 5.0 +/- 2.5 degrees at the base and a slightly reduced rotation of -7.3 +/- 5.2 degrees at the apex was found in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. A transmural gradient in fractional rotation and radial displacement was observed, with the highest values in the endocardial layer. Rotation in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was significantly less than in normal volunteers in the posterior region of the equatorial and apical planes. Furthermore, radial displacement was significantly reduced in the septum and inferior wall. In the anterior and posterior wall segments, a reduction of the radial displacement was observed only in the epicardium and midwall layers.
CONCLUSIONS Magnetic resonance myocardial tagging allows the noninvasive assessment of regional wall motion. Both in normal volunteers and in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathies, cardiac motion occurs in a complex mode, with the base and the apex rotating in opposite directions and the equatorial plane as a transitional zone (wringing motion). A reduced cardiac rotation can be observed in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy mainly in the posterior region, whereas a reduced radial displacement is found in the inferior septal zone.
- Copyright © 1992 by American Heart Association